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希腊剧院历史 History of the Greek Theatre

英国布拉德菲尔德学院是位于伯克郡乡村的一所私立学校。学校中心是可容纳1000个席位的圆形剧场,该剧场由废弃采矿场改建而来。自1890年第一部戏剧《安提戈涅》的演出以来,这里每隔三年都会演出一部著名的希腊戏剧。

Bradfield College is an independent school situated in the Berkshire countryside. At the heart of the school, is a 1000 seat amphitheatre formed from a disused chalk quarry. Since Antigone in 1890, every third year the school stages a full Greek play that is world-renowned.





校长Herbert Branston Gray起初为挽救濒临破产的学校而开始的戏剧演出一直延续到今天,已有150年的历史。剧场刚开始是由学生建筑的,后来才交给建筑工人。参演著名希腊悲剧《安提戈涅》的学生从未接受过任何专业的希腊语训练,并且只有九个月的时间来学习台本和排练,此外还需要完成其他学习内容。2009年,希腊剧院因翻修而关闭。此次翻修工程耗资130万英镑,2014年6月20日,剧院再次以一出《安提戈涅》宣布重新回归。

Started to save the school from bankruptcy by Head Master, Dr Herbert Branston Gray, the Greek plays have been staged by the school for almost 150 years. Dr Gray initially had students work on forming the theatre before reverting to builders to create his own version of Epidaurus. The students who act in the Greek tragedies receive no formal training in speaking Ancient Greek, and have only nine months to learn the lines and direction, while keeping up with their other studies. The Greek Theatre closed in 2009 for restoration and, following a £1.3 million appeal,reopened with a performance of Antigone on 20th June, 2014.





布拉德菲尔德学院十分尊重表演艺术。2014年剧院重新开放,在校学生都是剧院关闭之后入学的,未曾在该剧院内看过演出。现在,剧院同时成为了希腊戏剧、莎士比亚戏剧及音乐剧的表演舞台(受季节性限制);剧院还有可能重新与当地社区甚至外部戏剧公司建立联系。

Bradfield College has established considerable respect for its performing arts. When the theatre opened in 2014 no current student had witnesseda performance in the theatre. The theatre is now suitable for Greek, Shakespeare or musical performances albeit within seasonal restrictions. There is also hope that the theatre will re-establish its connections with the local community and beyond to external theatre companies.





业主 Client’s Brief

2012年,Studio Octopi接受委托对希腊剧场进行现代化改造,并需在2014年6月《安提戈涅》演出之前及时完成改造工作。

旧剧场已于2009年关闭,校方希望借助这次翻新机会增加新剧场建筑或舞台建筑以扩大剧场的功能。建筑前面是舞台和坐席。20世纪60年代,舞台面积扩大致使圆形坐席减少,此次改造将混凝土看台与舞台重新联系起来。事实上,圆形舞台存在一定的弊端,如:很难找到入口;通往观众席的楼梯蜿蜒而陡峭,十分不安全。因此需要提高入口通道的功能。另外,2009年到2012年间由于剧场无人照管,导致植被丛生,滑坡等也阻碍了剧场的顺畅通行。

In 2012 Studio Octopi were appointed to undertake the modernisation of the theatre with the intention to reopen the theatre in time for a performance of Antigone in June 2014.

The original ‘temple’ theatre building was condemned in 2009, and so the College felt there was now a chance to build a new theatre building or Skene that enabled a wider use of the theatre. Foreword of the Skene, sits the stage and orchestra. In the 1960’s when the stage was extended the circular Orchestra was truncated, now there was an opportunity to reconnect the concrete terraces with the stage. Finally, circulation hadalways been a victim of the theatre’s success. With the entrance almost impossible to find and precariously steep winding stairs down into theauditorium something had to be done to improve access. Within the theatre years of undergrowth and landslides further hampered circumnavigation.



建筑景愿 Architectural Vision

Studio Octopi第一次考察后边决定保留剧院风景如画般的场地背景,同时增加更为先进的供学校或专业戏剧表演的设施。2009年到2012年间,岁月的侵蚀和可怕的宁静慢慢将旧剧场消磨殆尽。这段时间,由于缺乏人为管理,自然力量主宰着剧场,几乎就要永远消失在未来布拉德菲尔德人的世界中。为了挽回剧场,2011年秋季,Studio Octopi委托Petr Krej?í制作了一部关于“剧院陨落”的短片(网址:http://vimeo.com/52746647)。建筑师们从短片中获得启发,反思剧院在自然力量面前的脆弱,从而完成了整个设计过程。

From Studio Octopi’s first visit they were intent on preserving the wild and picturesque setting, whilst providing improved facilities for school or professional drama. Between 2009 and 2012 the original theatre building was lost through decay and an eerie calm descended on the site. As nature took hold, there was a time when the theatre might have been permanently lost for future generations of Bradfieldians. In response to thetheatre’s fall from grace, in the Autumn of 2011 Studio Octopi commissioned Petr Krej?í to make a film about the theatre’s descent into a ruin.(See the film here http://vimeo.com/52746647). The making of this film assisted the architects through the design process by reflecting on the theatre’s fragility in the face of a rampant nature.







Studio Octopi旨在恢复遗失的风景。面对正在眼前消失的剧院,Studio Octopi的设计意图十分明确、直接,即挽救当下陨落的剧院,同时考虑接下来120年剧院的发展情况。基于上述考量,Studio Octopi的设计尽量减少对周围环境的影响。

Studio Octopi’s commission was to recover a lost landscape. The theatre was dying before them and the decisions subsequently made were unequivocal in their ambition. The architects approach was indeed forthright but with an appreciation with how the place may evolve in the next120 years. As witnessed in other projects such as the Delfina Foundation, Studio Octopi adopted a light touch approach in masterminding a returnfor this forlorn site.





该项目的设计关键点是形成新的剧院入口通道。建筑师在废弃的原入口阶梯上修建了一个新的平台,可以看到观众席的全景。从刻有捐助者姓名的花岗岩块地面可到达高出下方观众席6m的悬臂式镀锌金属结构平台。剧院区域内一棵高挑优雅的树木伸出平台,体现了该项目保护自然的首要设计理念。

Forming a new entrance to the theatre was key and this naturally informed the journey there on in. Set out over the ruins of the previous entrancestair, the new Agora commands spectacular views over the auditorium. Leading off the granite terrace with the donors names engraved into it, aglavanised metal deck cantilevers out 6m over the terraces below. Punctuating the deck is one of the most elegant trees within the site. Tall and graceful its presence signals the determination to keep nature at the forefront of the architectural proposals.











金属大楼梯顺畅地滑入剧院。这个Y形大梯的两翼是1.8m宽的楼梯,两个楼梯合在一起形成了3.6m宽的阶梯,直接通向剧院四周的人行步道。剧院所有新楼梯的台阶下面都安装了线性LED灯,为下一台阶提供照明。夜里,在LED灯光的照射下,楼梯似乎悬浮在采矿场和下层植物之上。

Descending into the theatre the Grand Staircase effortlessly glides over the chalk cutting below. The ‘wishbone’ stair starts as two 1.8m wide flights,before connecting at the landing to create a 3.6m stair which lands on the perimeter Walkway. As with all new stairs in the theatre, each tread is litfrom a linear LED mounted to the underside of the tread above. At dusk the LEDs provide a spectacular floating stair suspended over the chalk and undergrowth below.





剧院四周的黑色混凝土人行道处于原观众席最上面三层的位置上。人行道上安装了供电设施,对原看台不会造成任何影响。人行道总厂85m,囊括了所有270个剧院看台,并设有五个台阶可以通向下面的混凝土过道,将观众引至坐席。演出进行时,观众还能通过人行步道方便地进出。人行道的边缘是用螺栓拴紧的网格状镀锌栏板,每块栏板上端都安有窄板,方便观众在此倚靠,静静地欣赏剧目。

The black pigmented concrete Walkway that runs the around the perimeter of the theatre is cast over the original upper three terraces. The Walkway provides improved circulation and duct to run electrical services without disrupting the original terraces. The walkway is 85m long and spans almost the full 270’ of the theatre terraces. Off the Walkway there are five staircases to distribute the audience down onto the existing concrete aisle steps to their seats. As well as circulation the Walkway offers a peripatetic vantage point during performances. The mesh galvanised balustrade panels bolted to the edge of the Walkway concrete each have a leaning plate on top, a place to contemplate the performance from.









人行道中央与舞台建筑相对的是控制中心,由这里控制舞台长时间照明灯光和临时表演灯光。控制中心完全采用百叶窗式的镀锌板构成,悬于人行步道之外。中心前面,黑色的基座上是4.3m宽的铰接面板,可以看到舞台全景。10mm厚的镀锌金属板屋顶上安有一组照明灯。

Half way along the Walkway, centred to the Skene is the Control Hut. From here the permanent house lighting and temporary performance lightingis controlled. The Hut is constructed entirely from galvanised louvered panels and cantilevered from the Walkway. To the front, a 4.3m wide hinged panel rises on gas struts to provide uninterrupted views of the stage. The 10mm thick galvanised steel plate roof has one of five performance lightingrigs mounted on top.





舞台建筑位置遵循了原剧场的布局,位于圆形舞台旁边的四个台阶之上,正对着舞台的尾部。还可以充当舞台上临时布景的辅助背景,这样极大地增加了舞台建筑的功能性。该建筑外部由雪松板覆盖起来,而前面的滑动门则采用雪松条搭建而成。由滑动门构成的立面可根据需要完全敞开或部分敞开。一层的悬臂结构可以让门廊完全敞开(净跨度12m)以适应戏剧布景的需要。其内部的两间更衣室同时用于储存基本设施和表演设备。

The Skene function and siting is based on the traditional Greek theatre layout. From the reinstated Orchestra disk, four steps rise to the stage, withthe Skene located towards the rear of the stage. Unlike the previous temple where scenery was fixed directly to it, the Skene has been designed to provide support to a temporary scenery construction on the stage. The intention being that this extends the life of the Skene. The building is clad incedar shingles and, to the sliding doors at the front, cedar batons. The front elevation is designed to be fully openable at ground floor (with a seriesof sliding doors) and partially at first floor (with a series of hinged double doors).  The cantilever structure at first floor level enables the loggia to befully opened-up (12m clear span) with no structural elements to constrain the theatrical use of the space. There are two changing rooms with basicstorage and pre performance facilities (make-up and toilets are provided in the Music Schools).











布拉德菲尔德学院希腊剧院宛如英式庄园延伸,充满自然的野性,令人心驰神往。仲夏的黄昏为剧院蒙上了一层特殊的面纱;透过四周树冠形成的天眼可以望见头顶纯净清澈的天空。当夜幕降临,华灯初上,室外表演开始散发出生动的魅力。

The Bradfield Greek Theatre continues to feel part of a larger English garden, wild and intoxicating. At the height of summer, approaching dusk, the theatre takes on a truly unique appearance; the overhead sky is viewed through the natural oculus formed by the enclosing trees. As the light drops the theatre lights take over, and the magic of outdoor performance is alive.







Client   Bradfield College, Bradfield, Reading, RG7 6AUArchitects  Studio Octopi, 1c Burrows Mews, London SE1 8LD www.octopi.co.uk  Project Manager Synergy Construction & Property Consultants LLP, Unit 1, Grovelands Business Centre, Boundary Way, Hemel Hempstead,Herts, HP2 7TE, http://www.synergyllp.co.uk/ Cost Consultant Synergy Construction & Property Consultants LLP, 61 Southwark Street, London SE1 0HLStructural Engineer Milk Structures, 342 Old Street, Shoreditch, London EC1V 9DSTheatre Consultants Charcoal Blue (concept work by TheatrePlan), 17 Short Street, London SE1 8LJ, www.charcoalblue.com Electrical Consultant Q & Co Oxford Ltd; 32 Lamborough Hill, Wootton, Abingdon, OX13 6BZGraphic Designer Phil Baines, www.flickr.com/photos/phil_baines/ (07973) 359579

Construction cost £1.1millionConstruction period 15 months

SuppliersSpecialist metalwork Lang & Fulton, Unit 2b, Newbridge Industrial Estate, Edinburgh  EH28 8PJ, www.langandfulton.co.uk Specialist concrete EJ Lazenby Contracts Ltd, Unit 2, Off Depot Road, London W12 7RP, www.lazenby.co.uk/Lighting (LEDs) Architectural FX, 5 Crossways, London Road, Sunninghill, Berkshire SL5 0PL, www.architecturalfx.co.ukLighting (other) Commercial Lighting Systems Ltd, Units 16/17 Chandlers Way, Swanwick, Southampton, SO31 1FQ,  www.commercial-lighting.co.uk  Encapsulite www.encapsulite.co.ukLightPlus UK, www.light-plus.co.uk















MORE: Studio Octopi
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