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蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第1张图片

© 杨超英

摘要:
       作为城市会展业发展载体的会展建筑是直接服务于大型经济贸易、文化交流活动的场所,具有独特的建筑特性。本文通过在中国(太原)煤炭交易中心 ——国际展览中心创作中的体会,结合目前国内外会展建筑的设计经验,从 “内在功能特性”与“外在建筑表现”两方面对会展建筑的独特性进行分类、剖析、总结和归纳。

关键词:
会展建筑 专业化 系统化 功能特性 建筑表现

       中国(太原)煤炭交易中心位于太原市长风街与滨河西路交汇处的西南方位,处于太原市长风商务区的北端。整个项目建设用地 44.2公顷,一期总规模约 11.4万㎡,包括国际展览中心和交易大楼两大部分。

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第2张图片

© 杨超英

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第3张图片

© 杨超英

展览中心:
概况
       展览中心位于中国(太原)煤炭交易中心园区的中心区域,总建筑面积约 5.8万㎡,地上一层,局部两层,地下一层,采用环形集中式布局,将登录大厅、中心展馆和六个类型化展馆有机组织在一个圆形的“碟”状巨构之内,共有 3m×3m国际标准展位 1200个。
360°统一造型
       展览中心与南侧文化岛隔河相望,东侧为汾河景观带,北侧为高档住宅区,西侧面向长风商务区主轴线,各个朝向均具备良好的视野和景观优势。本案结合项目的规模、特点,采用“化零为整”的原则,突破传统会展建筑的线性布局,以各向均好的圆形布局面向周围城市。 360°统一的立面特征强调了建筑的标志性,形成完整、震撼的建筑形态。
环形布局
       传统的会展建筑往往采用线性布局,具有模块化可持续发展的特征。而本项目由于受规模限制,只有 5万平米的建筑要求,且又要形成完整,统一的建筑造型,因此采用环形联通的平面布置方案。独特的布局达成了各展馆之间的无缝联接,相邻展馆可以灵活组合,既可以单馆使用,也可以将展馆任意并联。本项目如果内部空间全部开敞使用,则成为目前世界上面积最大的单体展馆。中心展馆的围合与开放、纯净与明亮,使空间的整体感得到升华,无形中塑造了展厅空间沉稳、宏大的精神特质。
布展空间
       展览中心覆盖在穹型屋面之下,标准展馆高度从外围向圆心逐渐升高,最低点净高 12m,满足一般展览的基本需求,中心展馆最低点净高 20m,可以举办大型特殊展品的展览。展览中心各展馆覆盖在球形屋面之下,形成了非匀质化的净高空间,为多样化的展览内容提供了弹性。

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第4张图片

© 杨超英

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第5张图片

© 杨超英

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第6张图片

© 杨超英

复合交通
       环形的平面布局决定了内部交通依然采用环形流线设计。中心环廊及展区的环形流线布局浓缩了链接各展馆之间的交通动线,首尾相连、圆润流畅、浑然一体,改变了传统的观 -展互动模式;结合登陆厅以及各个展馆,在建筑外围呈放射状设置了展览中心主入口以及各展馆次入口。展览期间,展馆外围环路为主要的人流集散区域;而布展期间, 30米宽的环路则作为货区使用,人流通过建筑檐下及内部环路穿行。这种复合化的交通设计,更加适合中小型展览中心的特征,节约土地,方便使用。
复杂结构
       展览中心采用目前国内单体面积最大的大跨度螺旋穹顶管桁架屋盖,主体结构跨度 87m,外环柱轴网直径 229m,内环柱轴网直径 45m。两圈环形柱廊支撑起顶部巨大的圆形屋盖,内部形成超尺度的无柱空间,满足展览功能的需要。屋顶结构管桁架相贯连接,呈双向弧形放射状排布。
       中心展馆的玻璃采光顶则首次采用新型索网与索穹顶组合支撑结构。轻盈的索结构体系与遮阳百叶相结合,同时采用玻璃作为屋面围护结构,形成精致的高技派风格,实现技术与艺术的完美统一。同时与周边粗狂的钢结构屋顶体系形成鲜明的对比,更加突出了其中心展馆的核心地位,使整体内部空间层次分明。
功能叶片
       在展览中心外围飘蓬下,依据空气对流原理设计了 48片“空气导流光信息综合功能叶片”。一则,叶片有效营造了展馆周围人流循环区域舒适宜人的“小气候”;二则,在叶片中镶嵌的 LED光源矩阵,同时使叶片成为 48块巨型信息发布银屏;再则,于叶片的下边和顶部凹槽安装了泛光照明的装置系统;多功能的叶片装置为“一石多鸟”之举,不仅在技术上解决了诸多问题,在建筑的美学层面也增添了灵活跃动的元素。  

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第7张图片

© 杨超英

交易大楼

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第8张图片

© 杨超英

概况
       交易大楼位于中国(太原)煤炭交易中心园区东北部,东临长风西街,与丽华大厦相对,北侧与万国城 MOMA遥相呼应,南侧是可以举行万人集会的庆典广场,西侧是整个园区的主体建筑 ——展览中心。交易大楼是中国(太原)煤炭交易中心的重要组成部分,为交易中心的运转提供办公、交易、会议、接待等重要功能空间。交易大楼由两个圆形体量裙房和一栋矩形塔楼组成,总建筑面积约 5.6万㎡,建筑高度 99.95m,地上 23层,地下 1层。

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第9张图片

© 杨超英

模数
       本项目在设计中采用严格的“完成面模数控制体系”,力求对平面、立面及细部尺寸进行统一控制。塔楼的基本模数为 9m,边跨为 4.5m,分模数为 1.5m。裙房大圆的环向模数为 12°,分模数为 6°、3°、2°、1°,径向模数为 9m。半圆形裙房环向模数为 20°,分模数为 10°、4°、2°,径向模数为 9.50m。标准层基本模数为 1.50m,柱网为 9m网格控制模数为 1.50m,外幕墙模数为 1.50m,室内装修采用模块隔墙系统 1.5m、3m,吊顶用模块面板 0.75m,铺地采用采用模块地材 0.75m。

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第10张图片

© 杨超英

呼吸器
       建筑外立面幕墙系统采用统一的竖向肌理,突出的梯形截面构件是我们自主研发应用的“呼吸器”系统,室外自然风通过呼吸器表面的穿孔铝板进入墙体,再经过其内部的开启窗进入室内。呼吸器内部装有防虫网以及栏杆,确保了开启后使用的舒适性和安全性。呼吸器开启扇为内向平开式,高度 3.6m,宽度 0.4m,表面采用铝板,内部填充保温材料,开启后从室内看形成竖向错动的乱码效果,与内部装修风格相协调。整栋大楼由于采用了呼吸器进行通风换气,避免了开启窗对建筑造型效果的干扰,雨水管及照明线路亦藏于呼吸器腔体内部,达成简洁、纯净的建筑立面效果。另外,在呼吸器外部设置凹槽, LED灯带镶嵌其中,大幅度节约用电,并使立面肌理在夜间也能够通过灯饰化设计得以完整表现,充分体现了交易大楼的标志性和高科技含量。

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第11张图片

© 杨超英

景观
       本项目强调景观与建筑的一体化设计理念,通过在裙房南侧设置下沉庭院,通过绿植坡地及绿色台阶与室外地面衔接,形成“破土而出”的景观效果,既改善了地下空间的物理环境,又延展了建筑“自然生长”的积极空间。

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第12张图片

© 杨超英

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第13张图片

平面图

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平面图

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平面图

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平面图

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平面图

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第18张图片

立面图

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第19张图片

剖面图

蓝天下的“苍穹”/ BIAD 2A2设计所第20张图片

细部图

项目信息:
设计团队:北京市建筑设计研究院有限公司(BIAD)2A2设计所
(网址:www.i-bplat.com)
建设地点:中国山西省太原市
建设规模:114,000.00平方米(一期)
年份:2011年
摄影:杨超英
作者:马刚

设计团队:
展览中心:
设计总负责人:米俊仁、刘明骏
技术指导:聂向东、李大鹏
建筑专业负责人:吴量子、曹玺、马刚
结构专业负责人:陈彬磊、赵楠、胡正平
设备专业负责人:张杰、刘庆文、刘晓茹
电气专业负责人:贾燕彤、陈德悦
经济专业负责人:关效
设计人:马刚、甘宁、梁晓方

交易大楼:
设计总负责人:聂向东
技术指导:米俊仁、李大鹏
建筑专业负责人:聂向东、张文宁
结构专业负责人:陈彬磊、赵楠、胡正平
设备专业负责人:张杰、刘庆文、黄晓、赵金亮
电气专业负责人:贾燕彤、陈德悦
经济专业负责人:关效
设计人:马刚


*本文由北京市建筑设计研究院有限公司(BIAD)2A2设计所提供稿件,内容为2A2版权所有,未经2A2许可不得转载。*


China Taiyuan Coal Transaction Center

Abstract:  
Abstract: As the medium of the development of the exhibition design, the exhibition building possesses creativity and originality architecture of stands, directly giving service to excellent communications of culture and commerce. According to the realization of the projects, International Coal Trade Show Center, this paper encompasses a wide selection of experiment of exhibition buildings from overseas and domestic projects, to classify and summarize the characteristics of the exhibition building in the field of inner function and external appearance.

Key words:
Exhibition building, professional, systematization, functional properties, performance

Located in the southwest direction of the intersection of Taiyuan ChangFeng Street and BinHe West Road, China Taiyuan Coal Transaction Center is in the northern part of Taiyuan ChangFeng Business District. With the whole construction land area of 44.2 hectare, the first phase of the project has a total scale of about 114000 square meters, including two major components: the international exhibition center and the transaction building.

The International Exhibition Center
Overview
Located in the central region of China Taiyuan Coal Transaction Center’s central park, with the total construction area of about 58000 square meters, the international exhibition center has one (partially two) storey on the ground and one underground. Using circularly centralized layout, the exhibition center organically combines the registration hall, central exhibition hall and six categorized exhibition halls in a large round saucer-like construction with a total of 1200 3m × 3m international standard booths.
360 ° unified modeling
The international exhibition center has good vision and landscape advantages in each direction as it is opposite the southern culture island across the river, with Fen River landscape zone in the east, high-end residential area in the north and facing the main axis of ChangFeng Business District in the west. Based on the scale and characteristics of the project, this project follows the principle of Gathering parts into a whole and breaks through the traditional linear layout of exhibition constructions, with a good round layout in all direction facing the surrounding cities. 360 ° unified facade features emphasize the architectural symbolism and form a complete, shocking architectural form.
Annular layout
Traditional exhibition constructions often adopt linear layout and feature modularization and sustainable development. However, due to the limited scale and only 50000 square meters’ architecture requirement to form a complete and unified architectural modeling, this project adopted the plane arrangement scheme of annular linkage. The unique layout can achieve seamless connection of exhibition halls so that adjacent exhibition halls can be flexibly combined to be used either as a single one or a combined one. If the entire internal space of the project is open to use, the project will become the world’s largest single pavilion at present. The enclosing and opening, purity and brilliancy of the central exhibition hall has sublimated the wholeness of space, imperceptibly shaping the calm and grand ethos of the exhibition hall space.
Exhibition space
The exhibition center is covered under the vaulted roof and the height of standard pavilions gradually increases from the periphery to the center, with the clear height of the lowest point 12m which has met the basic needs of general exhibitions. The central hall, with the clear height of the lowest point 20m, can hold large-scale exhibitions for special exhibits. Each exhibition hall of the exhibition center is covered under the spherical roof, forming a non-homogenized headroom space to provide flexibility for diverse exhibitions.
Complex traffic
Annular plane layout determines that the internal traffic still uses annular circulation design. Unlike traditional seeing-displaying interaction mode, the central annular corridor and the annular circulation layout converge the traffic lines linking all the exhibition halls, end to end, round and smooth, seamless; To combine registration hall and various pavilions, the main entrance of the exhibition center and sub-entrances of each pavilion are set in radial pattern in the periphery of the construction. When exhibitions are being held, the peripheral loop outside the exhibition hall is the main flow distribution area; while during the preparation phase of exhibition, the 30-meter-wide loop is used as a cargo area and people walk under the building eaves and internal loop. This complex transportation design is more suitable for the features of small and medium sized exhibition centers because of its convenience and land conservation.
Complex structure
The exhibition center uses China’s largest individual area of large-span spiral dome pipe truss roof with the span of the main structure 87m, the diameter of outer annular column axis grid 229m and the diameter of inner annular column axis grid 45m. Two-circled annular colonnades support the huge circular roof, forming a super-scale internal column-free space to meet the needs of the exhibition functions. The structure pipe trusses on the roof are linked together, showing a two-way curved radial arrangement.
The glass daylighting roofs of the central exhibition hall firstly use new cable network and cable dome combined support structure. The lightsome cable structure system combining with sunshade shutters, with glass as roof building envelope, shows a delicate high-tech style and achieves perfect unity of technology and art. Meanwhile, in striking contrast to the surrounding rough steel roof system, the prominent position of the central exhibition hall is further highlighted, with the whole interior space gradation more distinct.
Functional leaf blades
Under the peripheral awning of the exhibition center, 48 pieces “air deflector optical information integrated functional leaf blades” are designed in terms of the principle of air convection. Firstly, the leaf blades effectively create pleasant "microclimate" in the flow circulation area around the pavilion; secondly, the LED light source matrix inlaid in the leaf blades make them also 48 giant information dissemination screens; thirdly, floodlighting system is installed in the bottom of leaf blades and top grooves. Serving multiple purposes, the versatile blade device not only technically solves many problems, but also, in the aesthetic aspect of the construction, adds vibrant and flexible elements.
The transaction building:
Overview
The transaction building is located in the northeast of China Taiyuan Coal Transaction Center’s central park, facing ChangFeng West Street in the east and opposite LiHua Mansion, echoing WanGuo City MOMA at a distance in the north, having celebration square capable of assembly for ten thousand of people in the south and the exhibition center-the main building of the whole park in the west. As an important component of China Taiyuan Coal Transaction Center, the transaction building provides important functional space of business, transaction, conference, reception and so on for the operation of the transaction center. The transaction building comprises two round circular annexes and one rectangle tower, 23 floors on the ground and one floor underground, with the overall floorage about 56000 square meters and the building height 99.95m.
Modulus
This project adopts strict Modulus Control System of Finished Surface in design, striving to make unified control on plane, façade and detailed size. The basic modulus of the tower is 9m, with side span 4.5m, sub modulus 1.5m. The hoop modulus of annex’s large circle hoop modulus is 12 °, with the sub modulus 6 °, 3 °, 2 °, 1 °, and radial modulus 9m. The hoop modulus of the semicircular annex is 20 °, with the sub modulus 10 °, 4 °, 2 °, and radial modulus 9.50m. The basic modulus of standard layer is 1.50m, with column grid 9m, grid control modulus 1.50m, the outer wall modulus 1.50m, interior trim-use module partition system 1.5m, 3m, ceiling-use module panels 0.75m and pavage-use module flooring 0.75m.
Air Exchanger
Building external facade curtain wall system uses a unified vertical texture and the prominent trapezoidal cross-section component is our self-developed "air exchanger" system through the superficial perforated aluminum of which the outdoor natural wind enters into the wall and then into the interior via internal open window. Insect nets and railings are installed inside the air exchanger to ensure the comfort and safety of use after opening. The opening fan of air exchanger is flat open inward, with its height 3.6m, width 0.4m, and aluminum plate surface filled with insulation material inside. After opening, from the interior perspective, garbled vertical dislocation effect is formed in harmony with interior decor. As a result of the application of air exchanger for ventilation in the whole building, windows are of no need to open and the effect of architectural modeling is not influenced. The rain pipes and illuminating lines are also hidden inside the cavity of air exchanger to make a simple and pure building façade effect. In addition, LED light bands are inlaid in the grooves set outside the ventilator resulting in a significant reduction in electricity consumption and a full manifestation of façade texture at night through lighting design, which fully embodies the symbolism and high-tech features of the construction.
Landscape
The project emphasizes the design idea of the integration of landscape and architecture by designing sunken garden in the south of the annex and connecting with the outdoor ground through green plants and sloping ground to form "emerged" landscape effects, not only improving the physical environment of underground space, but also extending the positive space of "natural growth" of the construction.


Architects: 2A2 Design Department, Beijing Institute of Architectural Design, China
(Website: www.i-bplat.com)
Location: Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China
Area: 114,000.00sqm (1st phase)
Year: 2011
Photographs: Yang ChaoYing
Author: Ma Gang
Design Team: Exhibition Center
Architect In Charge: Mi JunRen, Liu MingJun
Technical Director: Nie XiangDong, Li DaPeng
Architecture: Wu LiangZi, Cao Xi, Ma Gang
Structure: Chen BinLei, Zhao Nan, Hu ZhengPing
Equipment: Zhang Jie, Liu QingWen, Liu XiaoRu
Electrical: Jia YanTong, Chen DeYue
Economic: Guan Xiao
Designer: Ma Gang, Gan Ning, Liang XiaoFang
Coal Transaction Building
Architect In Charge: Nie XiangDong
Technical Director: Mi JunRen, Li DaPeng
Architecture: Nie XiangDong, Zhang WenNing
Structure: Chen BinLei, Zhao Nan, Hu ZhengPing
Equipment: Zhang Jie, Liu QingWen, Huang Xiao, Zhao JinLiang
Electrical: Jia YanTong, Chen DeYue
Economic: Guan Xiao
Designer: Ma Gang


*Appreciation towards BIAD 2A2 Design Department, Beijing Institute of Architectural Design, China for providing the project description.*
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 匿名

  • 孙铭浩
  • 2014.05.21 21:30
    • 0
  • 100544231
  • 2014.05.21 16:14
    没有眼前一亮的赶脚啊 ,虽然是要建在在家乡的
    • 0
  • .小開_﹏
  • 2014.05.20 20:33
    看起来貌似比较中规中矩…
    • 0
    没有了...
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