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如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第1张图片

© Onnis Luque

6个基于自然解决方案的城市设计项目
6 Urban Design Projects With Nature-Based Solutions

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

极端的自然事件在世界各地的出现越来越频繁,许多研究表明,洪水、风暴和海平面上升可能会影响全球8亿多人,最终在本世纪中叶使城市每年损失1万亿美元。这表明,城市的脆弱性与城市未来的发展息息相关,甚至影响了城市人口的生存。

鉴于这一背景,许多城市设计项目开始引入基于自然的解决方案(NBS),提供生态系统的可持续管理,从而应对不同的环境挑战。这些解决方案可以将人们与自然重新联系起来,减轻空气污染,改善城市的热舒适度,减少城市热岛的影响,管理雨水径流,还有其他许多有益于环境和城市居民的身心健康的好处。此外,国家统计局还可以鼓励创造性的设计,其成本远远低于传统的解决方案。

下面,我们选择了六个城市项目,它们体现了以自然为基础的解决方案,解决了当代世界的不同挑战。

Bishan-Ang Mo Kio公园,新加坡

基于自然的解决方案需要跳出舒适区,尝试创造性的非显而易见的替代方案,并面对许多不同工作之间的密切合作。这个过程具有挑战性,但并非不可能,正如我们在新加坡的Bishan-Ang Mo Kio公园所看到的那样。

Extreme natural events are becoming increasingly frequent all over the world. Numerous studies indicate that floods, storms, and sea-level rise could affect more than 800 million people worldwide, ultimately costing cities $1 trillion per year by the middle of the century. This suggests that urban survival depends on addressing urban vulnerability as a matter of urgency to protect the city and the population.
Given the background, many urban design projects started to introduce nature-based solutions (NBS) to provide sustainable management of ecosystems to tackle different environmental challenges. These solutions can reconnect the population with nature, mitigate air pollution, improve thermal comfort in the cities, reduce the effect of urban heat islands, and manage stormwater runoff, among many other benefits to the environment, and to the physical and mental health of urban dwellers. Moreover, NBS can also contribute towards creative designs that can cost much less than traditional solutions.
Below, we have selected six urban projects that embody nature-based solutions addressing different challenges of the contemporary world.

Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park, Singapore
Nature-based solutions require stepping outside the comfort zone, trying creative non-obvious alternatives, and close collaboration between many different work fronts. This process is challenging, but not impossible, as we can see in the Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park in Singapore.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第2张图片

Image courtesy of Atelier Dreiseit

几十年前,政府决定对Kallang河进行渠化改造,形成一条有围栏的线性运河,成为公园和社区之间的明显分界线。在迫切需要升级的情况下,混凝土运河可以重新设计,但新加坡的国家水务局决定通过恢复原有的河床和洪泛区,使河流自然化。2.7公里长的混凝土排水渠被拆除,变成了一条蜿蜒的3.2公里长的自然河流。

那么蓝绿色的基础设施项目应运而生,既能防洪又能改善水质,增加运河对社区的好处。将自然材料、土木工程技术和能够过滤和吸收水的植物结合起来,对于稳定河岸和防止水土流失至关重要。

新加坡国立大学进行了一项成本效益分析,报告称重建混凝土运河将花费约9400万美元(1.33亿新元),而归化工程则只花费了不到5000万美元(7000万新元),并进一步促进了公园区域的扩大和与城市的重新连接。

A few decades ago, the city decided to channelize the Kallang River creating a linear fenced canal that was a clear dividing line between the park and community. In dire need of an upgrade, the concrete canal could be redesigned but Singapore's national water agency decided to naturalize the river by restoring the original riverbed and floodplain. The 2.7 km straight concrete drainage channel was torn down and transformed into a meandering 3.2 km long natural river.
The result is a blue-green infrastructure project that provides flood prevention and improved water quality, increasing the benefits of the canal to the community. Combining natural materials, civil engineering techniques, and plants that can filter and absorb water was essential to stabilize the riverbanks and prevent erosion.
The National University of Singapore carried out a cost-benefit analysis that reported that rebuilding the concrete canal would cost about US$94 million (133 million SGD, Singapore dollars). Naturalization, on the other hand, cost just under US$50 million (70 million SGD) and further contributed to expanding and reconnecting the park areas to the city.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第3张图片

Image courtesy of Atelier Dreiseit

换句话说,除了改善洪水管理和水质带来的所有环境效益,以及通过让人们更接近自然而对人们的身心健康产生的积极影响,国家还节约了巨大的财政开支,通过传统解决方案的一小部分成本取得了巨大的成果。


绿色走廊,哥伦比亚

在过去的几年里,哥伦比亚麦德林市当局已经将18条道路和12条水道的边缘改造成了一个绿色的天堂。绿色走廊项目包括沿街种植树木,以减轻由混凝土和沥青的过度使用造成的城市热岛效应。

In other words, besides all the environmental benefits from the improved flood management and water quality, and the positive impact on people's physical and mental well-being by bringing them closer to nature, this NBS has also generated significant financial savings, achieving great results for a fraction of the cost of traditional solutions.

Green Corridors, Colombia
Over the past few years, city authorities of the Colombian city of Medellín have transformed the verges of 18 roads and 12 waterways into a green paradise. The Green Corridors project consists of planting trees along thoroughfares to mitigate the effects of urban heat islands caused mainly by the overuse of concrete and asphalt.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第4张图片

Image courtesy of CicloVivo

例如,东方大道(Avenida Oriental)是该市最繁忙的道路,经过改造,人行道上超过2公里的铺装被花园所取代。种植了600多棵树、棕榈树和数千种精心挑选的小型植物,使本地的野生动物重新回到这个地区。今天,我们可以看到许多不同的鸟类,如鹦鹉,蝴蝶,甚至还有松鼠在城市中穿梭。

该方案适应于最缺乏绿色空间的地区,并成功地将空气温度降低了2℃以上,因此绿色走廊项目也屡获殊荣。


雨水花园,巴西

与前一个项目类似,这个项目也解决了城市景观渗透性差的问题。雨水花园专门设计用于减少雨水的流速、总量和污染物负荷。这种做法利用植物、石头和其他自然元素来处理城市径流。当水在土壤和穿插的植物根系中向下流动时,悬浮的固体被过滤掉。这些花园可以出现在人行道、道路、花坛附近,甚至在道路内。

For example, the Avenida Oriental, one of the busiest roads in the city, was remodeled and had over 2 kilometers of paving on the pedestrian island and sidewalks replaced by gardens. More than 600 trees, palms, and thousands of smaller plants of carefully selected species have been planted, allowing the native wildlife to return to the area. Today we can see many different birds, such as parakeets and parrots, also butterflies, and even squirrels traveling through the city.
The initiative focused on areas that most lacked green spaces and managed to reduce air temperature by more than 2°C. The Green Corridor project won the 2019 Ashden Award for Cooling by Nature Award, supported by the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program.

Rain Garden, Brazil
Similar to the previous project, this one also addresses the issue of impermeability of the urban landscape. Rain gardens are specifically designed to reduce the flow rate, total quantity, and pollutant load of stormwater runoff. This practice is used to treat urban runoff using plants, stones, and other natural or engineered elements. Suspended solids are filtered out of the water as it moves down through the soil and interspersed plant roots. These gardens can be executed near sidewalks, roads, flowerbeds, or even inside lots.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第5张图片

Image © Luiz Franco

2019年,里约热内卢市的第一个雨水花园设置在Fundição Progresso文化中心,以一个名为Dia da QuebrAção的行动拉开序幕,大楼前的混凝土人行道开始被拆除,取而代之的是200平方米的绿色空间。负责该项目的Cecilia Herzog和Daniel Gabrielli说,让自然回归城市生活并向其学习,与所有物种合作,利用自然的技术为城市造福,是21世纪的一个重要范式。


线性大运河公园,墨西哥

与麦德林的绿色走廊一样,墨西哥城的这个线性公园以环境再生为基础,通过对城市结构的重建和土壤渗透性的恢复,使空气的相对湿度增加了16%,温度降低了5%,有效缓解了热岛的影响。

In 2019, the first rain garden in the city of Rio de Janeiro was installed at the Fundição Progresso Cultural Center, kicking off with an action called Dia da QuebrAção (Wrecking Day) in which the concrete sidewalk in front of the building began to be removed, to be replaced with 200 square meters of green space. Cecilia Herzog and Daniel Gabrielli, who were in charge of the project, say that bringing nature back to urban life and learning from it, cooperating with all species, and using nature's techniques for the benefit of the city, is a major paradigm for the 21st century.

Lineal Gran Canal Park, Mexico
Like the green corridors in Medellín, this linear park in Mexico City is based on environmental regeneration, through reforestation of the urban fabric and restoration of soil permeability, which has resulted in an increase of 16% in the relative humidity of the air and a reduction of up to 5% in temperature, mitigating the effect of heat islands.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第6张图片

© Onnis Luque

该公园创造了许多环境效益,进一步说,它象征着对一个被忽视的空间的重新认识。它建在首都历史悠久的大运河上,整合了7万多平方米的土地,这些土地过去被城市结构中的硬性线条分割。设计的重点是恢复旧运河的本地植被和河岸森林,将该地区转变为一个100%可渗透的公共空间。

The park provides many environmental benefits, but furthermore, it symbolizes the reclaiming of a neglected space. It was built over the capital's historic Grand Canal structure, integrating more than 70,000 square meters of land that used to be divided by this harsh line in the urban fabric. The intervention focused on recovering the native vegetation and riparian forest of the old canal, transforming the area into a 100% permeable public space.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第7张图片

© Onnis Luque

雨水湿地公园,中国

该公园位于城市的正中央,在一个被列为保护的区湿地的地方,其四面被道路和密集的开发所包围,因此水源被切断,湿地生态受到威胁。建筑师的策略是将即将消失的湿地转化为"绿色海绵",成为一个城市雨水公园,设计方案不仅拯救了正在消失的湿地,还为新的城市社区提供多种服务。

Stormwater Wetland Park, China
This park is located right in the middle of the city, in an area that is listed as a protected regional wetland. The site is surrounded by roads and dense development on four sides, so water sources were being cut, and the wetland was under threat. The architects' strategy was to transform the dying wetland into a ‘green sponge,’ an urban stormwater park which not only rescues the disappearing wetland but also provides multiple services for the new urban community.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第8张图片

Courtesy of Turenscape

该项目遵循四个准则。首先,现有湿地的中心部分未被触动,允许其自然发展和转变;第二个策略是使用简单的切割和填充技术,在原湿地周围创造一圈池塘和小丘,这为湿地的核心部分创造了一个缓冲区,在自然和城市之间创造了一个温馨的景观过滤器;第三,在地面上建立小路和城市网络,让游客体验在森林中行走;第四个策略是创造高架人行道,将分散的土丘与平台和观景塔连接起来,为自然景观的不同视角提供框架。

The project follows four guidelines. First, the central part of the existing wetland was left untouched, allowing it to evolve and transform naturally. The second strategy was to create a ring of ponds and mounds surrounding the former wetland using simple cut-and-fill techniques, which creates a buffer zone for the core of the wetland and a welcoming landscape filter between nature and the city. Third, a network of paths and urban furniture on ground level, allowing visitors to experience walking through a forest. And finally, the fourth strategy was to create elevated walkways that connect the scattered mounds with platforms and viewing towers that frame different perspectives of the natural landscape.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第9张图片

Courtesy of Turenscape

这种基于自然的解决方案将湿地变成了一个多功能的雨水公园,它可以收集、过滤、储存雨水,并渗透到含水层中,同时具有生产性和亲水性,为城市提供新的休闲和审美体验。该公园极大地保护了自然环境,同时也成为该地区有效的排水基础设施,此前,该地区在6月至8月经常会受到洪水影响。


一些国家的城市农场

通过独立机构或政府的倡议,城市农业在世界各地的许多城市已经成为一种趋势。例如,旧金山市为在空地上进行公共的城市耕作而给予税收减免。在东京,五个位于火车站顶部的屋顶社区菜园于2014年落成。在巴塞罗那,由退休人员管理,在废弃的周边地区建立了大型菜园。

This nature-based solution has transformed the wetland into a multifunctional stormwater park that collects, filters, stores rainwater, and infiltrates the aquifer while being productive and pro-life, providing new recreational and aesthetic experiences for the city. The park has greatly contributed to the survival of the natural environment while also acting as an effective drainage green infrastructure for the area, which was frequently affected by floods from June to August.

Urban Farming in several countries
Urban farming has been a growing practice in many cities around the world through independent or governmental initiatives. The city of San Francisco, for example, is giving tax breaks for allowing communal urban farming on empty lots. In Tokyo, five rooftop community vegetable gardens located on top of train stations were inaugurated in 2014. In Barcelona, independent initiatives run by retired people created large vegetable gardens in abandoned peripheral areas.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第10张图片

Image via CicloVivo

同时,巴西北部罗赖马州的 "可持续后院"(Quintais Susentáveis)倡议脱颖而出,因为它将基于农业生态学的可持续生产、食品和营养安全与弱势人群的创收相结合,促进了社会和劳动的融合。该计划进行可持续生产的教育,并鼓励当地家庭在市场上销售他们的产品。这产生了许多可能性,包括苗木和有机肥的生产。

Meanwhile, the 'Quintais Susentáveis' (sustainable backyards) initiative in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil, stands out because it combines sustainable production based on agroecology, food & nutrition security with income-generating activities for vulnerable people, promoting social and labor inclusion. The program educates families in sustainable production and also encourages them to sell their products in local markets. This allows many possibilities, including the production of seedlings and organic compost.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第11张图片

Image © edibleoffice, via Flickr. Used under Creative Commons

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第12张图片

Photo © Rafael Porto, via CicloVivo


该项目在很大程度上也依赖于合作。通过调查了解家庭的饮食习惯,在社区的参与下选择植物物种,以便让每个人都能参与这个生产过程。

The project also relies heavily on collaborative activities. The plant species are selected with community participation through a survey carried out to understand the family's eating habits so that everyone feels included in the process.

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第13张图片

© Onnis Luque

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第14张图片

Courtesy of Turenscape

如何借助自然手段让城市生活更美好第15张图片

Courtesy of popupcity.net


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