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3D打印住宅优势一览:低碳、低成本、可持续时代的到来第1张图片


未来已到来:荷兰3D打印住宅已开始居住
The Future Is Now: 3D Printed Houses Start To Be Inhabited in the Netherlands

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

如果说几年前人们对3D打印还抱有某种怀疑,那么最近的新闻表明,这实际上是一种可行的技术,并将持续存在。2021年4月30日,荷兰第一个3D打印混凝土房屋的住户收到了钥匙,这座位于埃因霍温的房子是"里程碑项目"五座房子中的第一座,完全符合该国所有严格的建筑标准要求。

这座单层房屋的建筑面积为94平方米,包括一个客厅和两间卧室。它复制了一块大岩石的形状,与自然场地非常吻合,并展示了3D混凝土打印提供的形式自由。由于采用了超厚的绝缘材料以及与供热网络的连接,该房屋具有高度的舒适性和节能性,其能源性能系数为0.25。

这座房子由24个印刷混凝土元件组成,这些元件是在埃因霍温的一家工厂逐层印刷的。之后,这些元素被卡车运到施工现场,安装在地基上。最后,装置了屋顶和窗框,并进行了装饰。

If only a few years ago 3D printing was viewed with a certain suspicion, recent news has shown that it is in fact a viable technology that is here to stay. On April 30, 2021, tenants of the first 3D printed concrete house in the Netherlands received their keys. The house in Eindhoven—the first of five within the 'Milestone Project'—fully complies with all the country's stringent construction requirements.
The single story building has 94 square meters of floor space, including a living room and two bedrooms. It replicates the shape of a large rock, which fits well with the natural site and demonstrates the freedom of form offered by 3D concrete printing. Thanks to extra thick insulation and a connection to the heating network, the house is highly comfortable and energy efficient, with an energy performance coefficient of 0.25.
The house consists of 24 printed concrete elements that were printed layer by layer at a factory in Eindhoven. The elements were then transported by truck to the construction site and placed on a foundation. The house was then equipped with a roof and window frames, with finishes applied afterward.

3D打印住宅优势一览:低碳、低成本、可持续时代的到来第2张图片


3D打印住宅优势一览:低碳、低成本、可持续时代的到来第3张图片


据该团队称,打印该建筑的倾斜墙体尤其具有挑战性,但从原型中学习有助于他们在接下来计划的4座建筑中熟悉掌握该技术。几十年来,混凝土一直是世界上使用最广泛的建筑材料,人们现在都很熟悉它,人们知道它应该如何使用、在哪里使用。传统上,可以将混凝土倒入木质或金属模板中,而最终使用的混凝土量远远超过了施工的需要,使用得越多,建筑的二氧化碳排放量就越大,其温室效应也越明显。3D打印的巨大优势之一是混凝土打印机可以只在需要的地方放置混凝土,而不会使地基超载,也不会浪费材料。

According to the team, it was especially challenging to print the building's inclined walls, but learning from the prototype helped them master the technique in the next 4 buildings planned. Concrete has been the most widely used building material in the world for decades and we are all by now familiar with it; we know how and where it should be used. Traditionally, we pour concrete into wooden or metallic formwork, and end up using much more than necessary for the construction. The more that is used, the worse the building's CO2 emissions and the worse its greenhouse effect. One of the great advantages of 3D printing is that the concrete printer has the ability to place concrete only where it is needed, without overloading the foundations and without wasting materials.

3D打印住宅优势一览:低碳、低成本、可持续时代的到来第4张图片


3D打印住宅优势一览:低碳、低成本、可持续时代的到来第5张图片


原则上,打印的房屋可以更快建成,具有更多的灵活性和定制设计的潜力。“里程碑项目”合作伙伴的目标是让3D混凝土打印成为一种可持续的建筑方法,为解决住房短缺问题做出贡献。根据埃因霍温科技大学混凝土结构教授Theo Salet的说法,"通过这座小建筑,在建筑业发展为高质量的制造业方面已经迈出了重要的第一步。从设计到实施,数字化带来了可持续的、符合居住者意愿的、负担得起的住宅"。

In principle, printed houses can be built much more quickly, with more flexibility and potential for custom designs. The ambition of the Milestone Project partners is for 3D concrete printing to become a sustainable construction method that contributes to solving the housing deficit. According to Theo Salet, Professor of Concrete Structures at Eindhoven University of Technology: “With this small building, a first major step has been taken today in the development of construction into a high-quality manufacturing industry. From design to implementation, digitalization leads to sustainable and affordable homes tailored to the wishes of the occupant.”

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Cortesia de Project Milestone

“里程碑项目”的五座房屋正在陆续建成,因此每一轮新的建设都可以最大限度地从以前的建设中学习经验。很快,项目合作伙伴将开始着手设计下一栋建筑,这栋建筑将有几层,因此需要进一步发展完善该技术。

The five houses of the Milestone Project are being built one after the other so that each new round of construction can maximize learning opportunities from the previous ones. Soon, the project partners will start working on the design of the next building, which will have several floors and, therefore, require further development of the technique.

3D打印住宅优势一览:低碳、低成本、可持续时代的到来第7张图片

Cortesia de Project Milestone

Vesteda公司的投资总监Pieter Knauff补充说:"3D混凝土打印的自由形式为住宅的设计和体验创造了巨大的新的可能。同时,这种新技术有助于实现建筑业所需的可持续性,加快建筑生产和控制建筑成本,这对于继续建设低成本住宅是非常必要的。"

Pieter Knauff, Investment Director at Vesteda, adds that “3D concrete printing’s freedom of form creates an enormous new scope of possibilities in the design and experience of a home. At the same time, this new technique contributes to the required sustainability in the construction industry, the acceleration of building production and the control of construction costs, which is much needed in order to continue building affordable homes.”

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