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漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第1张图片

Old Havana. Image © Evan Chakroff

Preserving Cuba's History as Modern Developments Rise in Havana

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

古巴首都哈瓦那吸引了那些浪漫的理想城市者,他们认为这似乎是一座被时间凝固的城市。这座城市经历了西班牙、摩尔人和苏联的影响,自信地展示了其历史。古巴别克车队停泊在色彩斑斓又古老陈旧的房屋前,真正的革命意义存在于古巴在整个历史长河所经历的侵略中。

Havana appeals to those who romanticize the idea of a city that seems to be completely frozen in time. The capital’s urban fabric proudly displays its history, as it experienced waves of Spanish, Moorish, and Soviet influence. What really lies beyond the Revolutionary kitsch of vintage Buicks parked in front of colorful, yet crumbling homes, is the deprivation that Cuba has experienced throughout history.

漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第2张图片

© Evan Chakroff

尽管其他国家有机会在自己的全球化进程中发表意见,但古巴代表着地球上最后一个跨越冷战与西方资本主义影响之间界限的地方。哈瓦那多年来一直保持着完好的城市天际线,而这里现在是各种各样的起重机,因为它正面临着另一波侵略浪潮——21世纪的奢华开发商。

古巴现在拥有近代未曾出现过的经济机会,因为它逐步地脱离这样一个政府,即并非由Castro以及其他革命意识形态创始者领导的政府,相反,这个岛国的任务是保留其根深蒂固的文化,同时促进外部投资。尽管与美国的关系十分紧张,但在蓬勃发展的旅游业支撑的经济中,仍有许多人希望“在变化之前”游览哈瓦那。这种态度轻描淡写地描述了古巴人民的变化,而且变化的速度超过人们的预期。目标是提供既可以恢复城市的过去,又可以缓解其未来发展的资源,并防止城市的大坝被那些构思不佳的建筑物冲毁,从而无法更好地满足该国的需求。

While other nations have been afforded the chance to have a voice in their own globalization efforts, Cuba represents one of the last places on earth that straddles the line between a Cold War past and the increasing influence of western Capitalism. Havana’s skyline, which for years remained largely intact, is now dotted with cranes as they face yet another wave of invasions- the 21st-century luxury developer.
Cuba currently finds itself poised with economic opportunities that it has not seen in modern times, as it inches out of a government that is not headed by a Castro or any other founders of the revolutionary ideology. Instead, the island nation is tasked with preserving its deeply rooted culture while also introducing itself to outside investment. Playing into its economy that is propped up by a booming tourist industry, even despite its high-tension relationship with the United States, many people want to visit Havana “before it changes.” This attitude downplays both the fact that the Cuban people deserve change, and that change is coming faster than we predict. The goal is to provide resources that can both restore the city’s past while easing it into its future, and prevent the developer dam from bursting with poorly conceived buildings that won’t better serve the country’s needs.

漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第3张图片

Old Havana. Image © Evan Chakroff

直到最近,古巴的大多数建筑项目都集中恢复哈瓦那的房屋和企业,据估计其中三分之二的状况并不乐观。现在,人们开始关注美国向古巴预览禁运后,政府的应对情况,呼吁该国以美元出让发展权,建立高端旅游业。尽管有些建筑师担心美国与古巴之间的关系,但另一些建筑师则乐观地认为,古巴不是一个渴望金钱的国家,他们的民族自豪感将使他们摆脱贪婪的经济渴望。也许,他们对自己的历史的欣赏能使他们免于潜在的灾难性城市更新。

到2019年底,哈瓦那有7家高档酒店正在建设中,还有几家刚刚开业。最新的外国投资业务组合提议将目前被建筑物和公共场所占用的地块夷为平地,以进行旅游部称之为“不同的目的地”的整修,这些提议每年可带来近三百万游客。现在,在老哈瓦那市中心以及Miramar和El Vedado地区都可以看到新建筑。施工补给卡车、被围栏圈起来的区域和大规模的建设已转化为当地的经济来源。

Until recently, most of the architectural projects in Cuba focused on the restoration of Havana’s homes and businesses, two-thirds of which were estimated to be in a deteriorating condition. Attention has now been placed on what happened when the United States gave Cuba a preview into what a post-embargo government might look like, beckoning the country to sell off development rights for a quick dollar in order to create a high-end tourism industry. While some architects are fearful of what might happen when the relationship between the US and Cuba is inevitably repaired, others are optimistic that Cuba is not a money-hungry nation, and that their national pride will save them from greedy economic ambition. The hope is that their appreciation for their history will also save them from a potentially disastrous urban renewal.
By the end of 2019, there were seven upscale hotels under construction in Havana, and a handful more that had just opened. The most recent business portfolio for foreign investment proposed plots currently occupied by buildings and public spaces to be razed or renovated for what the Ministry of Tourism calls “a different destination” in an attempt to increase the nearly three million visitors it brings in annually. Construction is now noticeable both in the OId Havana city center and the more modern areas of Miramar and El Vedado. Supply trucks, fenced-off areas, and large scale renders plaster the sites that have been converted into these economic generators.

漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第4张图片

Newly constructed Hotel Paseo del Prado. Image via Iberstar Hotels & Resorts

最近开业的两家最受期待的酒店是Paseo del Prado酒店和Manzana Kempinski酒店,两者均面向国际游客服务,其特色包括豪华的客房、酒吧和餐厅以及屋顶游泳池。普拉多大道(Paseo del Prado)没有向它所坐落的历史悠久的街道致敬,与毗邻它的一排排色彩缤纷的古巴房屋相比,显得有些格格不入。然而,Manzana Kempinski酒店则进行了修复工作,对其外墙进行了升级更新,以使古巴的时代精神得以保留。

在旅游业推动修复工作的同时,并非每座历史建筑都可以改建成酒店或精品店。更重要的是,翻新这些建筑物以创造住房、学校和规划的空间,这将使古巴社会受益。哈瓦那旧城的转型速度比旅游区的扩张速度要慢得多。该市的国会大厦在脚手架上放置了近十年,缓慢地铺设了鹅卵石路,为新的公用设施线腾出了空间,而就在Parque中心街对面,一栋以前的办公楼被匆忙地改造成五星级酒店,并成为一个拥有Wi-Fi休息室的休闲胜地,这是岛上最受欢迎的奢侈品。这家酒店旁边还有新的商店,里面摆满了Che Guevarra帽子,Castro海报和其他旅游纪念品,但却是一个古巴人永远不会购物的地方。甚至中国开发商也在寻找适合的商机,将Cuatro Caminos市场改造成购物中心,创造了另一个消费空间,如今,古巴的大多数人口的经济消费能力已经远远超出了这一范围。

Two of the most anticipated hotels that recently opened were the Paseo del Prado Hotel and the Gran Hotel Manzana Kempinski, both marketed towards international visitors with features that include luxurious rooms, bars and restaurants, and rooftop pools. The Paseo del Prado doesn’t pay homage to the historic street that it sits upon, and stands out like a modernist sore thumb when compared to the rows of colorful Cuban homes that neighbor it. The Gran Hotel Manzana Kempinski however, was a restoration effort that upgraded its facade to keep the Cuban zeitgeist alive.
While tourism is driving the restoration efforts, it’s important to note that not every historic building can be converted into a hotel or boutique store. Instead, these buildings need to be refurbished to create space for housing, schools, and programs that will benefit Cuban society. The transformation of Old Havana’s city center has moved at a much slower rate than the tourist quarter has expanded. The city’s Capitol building has been sitting under scaffolding for almost a decade, cobblestone roads are slowly excavated to make room for new utility lines, while just across the street in the Parque Central, a former office building was hastily transformed into a five-star hotel and became a tourist destination filled with Wi-Fi lounges, a sought after luxury on the island. The hotel is also flanked by new stores filled with Che Guevarra hats, Castro posters, and other tourist nick-nacks, signaling a place that no Cuban would ever shop. Even Chinese developers were looking for their own piece of land and recently converted the Cuatro Caminos Market into a shopping mall, yet another space for consumption that is now further beyond the financial reach of the majority of Cuba’s population.

漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第5张图片

Gran Hotel Manzana Kepinski La Habana located on the Malecon. Image Courtesy of Gran Hotel Manzana Kempinski La Habana

古巴人民希望决策者将从以市场为中心的城市发展导致的负面例子中吸取经验教训,将保护主义与强有力的计划机制相结合,以达到完美的平衡。哈瓦那正处于转型的边缘,由于其历史悠久的建筑早就该进行修复,因此当地人也享有创造自己前进道路的能力。虽然一些以旅游业为重点的酒店、大型购物中心以及其他一些正在进行中的开发项目过早地引起了人们的注意,但哈瓦那可以以一种其他方式加入世界,并时刻真实地展现自己的身份,而不会成为下一个雷同的天际线。但是,随着时间的流逝,以及西方不受约束的每一个新时刻,留给哈瓦那保护文化和建筑的时间并不多了。

The Cuban people are hopeful that the policymakers will profit from the other negative examples of market-centric urban development countries, and combine preservationist ideals with strong planning mechanisms that could strike the perfect balance. Havana is on the brink of transformation and as it’s historic fabric is long overdue for rehabilitation, they also enjoy the ability to create their own path forward. While a few of tourism-focused hotels, a shopping mall, and a handful of other in-progress development projects may seem like a premature eyebrow raise, Havana understands that this is their moment to join the rest of the world in a way that remains authentic to who they are without ever becoming another indistinguishable skyline. But with each passing day, and with every new moment of unregulated western influence, the time for preservation seems to be running out.

漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第6张图片

Streets of Old Havana. Image © Evan Chakroff

漫步首都,古巴的历史保护值得深思第7张图片

Havana Skyline-2017. Image © Evan Chakroff










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