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无序城市中的秩序建筑丨墨西哥Hippodrome塔楼第1张图片


Hippodrome Tower / OAB

由专筑网小R,王雪纯编译

无序城市中的秩序建筑

Hippodrome塔楼位于墨西哥Guadalajara,由巴塞罗那OAB建筑事务所设计完成,是Carlos Ferrater五十年来最为辉煌的建筑作品之一,该项目由Carlos Ferrater与Xavier Martí、álvaro Berubén合作完成。建筑呈现为不规则的立方体形态,为在城市风貌带来了强烈的空间秩序感,场地周边包含有多种建筑,例如单户住宅和塔楼单元,但是却缺少层次化道路系统的设计方案来适应交通现状。场地周边本身并没有有序的规划。

Architectural Order within Urban Disorder
The Hippodrome Tower in Guadalajara, Mexico (2012-18), by OAB (Office of Architecture in Barcelona), is one of the crowning achievements in Carlos Ferrater’s fifty-plus years of creating architecture;on this occasion together with Xavier Martí,and with the collaboration of álvaro Berubén. It is an irregular prism that manages to bring order to a growth area of the Jalisco capital, in which there is not only an unforeseenmélange of typologies—from single-family houses to tower blocks—but also no extantplan for a hierarchized road system adapted to the marked increase in traffic. The tower stands where the dramatic, unplanned survival of streets and roadways prior to urban growth abound.

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因此,这个项目成为了一个绝佳的契机,OAB建筑事务所计划通过类型、组织、技术策略,来构建城市的秩序感。城市的背景和景观成为了Ferrater整个项目的第一要素。建筑所处的环境并不能给建筑师带来灵感,那么建筑自身就会成为秩序的参照,它会成为当地景观与建筑的亮点。因此,这座建筑的构思主要来源于视觉方面,从远处看,建筑具有纪念特征,越是靠近入口,越能让人感受到触觉肌理感受,而从建筑内部往外看,建筑的开口也构成了框景的作用,在夜晚,建筑内部的光线从几何表皮向外发散,让建筑如同一个巨型灯笼,构成了一定的图像形态。

This is a golden opportunity, then, for OAB to once again demonstrate its confidence in the capacity of typology, composition and technology to establish urban order. The context of both city and landscape has been the raison d’être of Ferrater’s work from the very first. And when this setting is incapable of providing inspiration,there emerges the order of the architecture itself to establish a reference, a landmark that indicates and enjoys the good orientations and views. In actual fact this is a building primarily conceived in terms of vision: the distant view, with its honest and clear monumentality; the near-to, in the entrance routing which privileges a tactile sense; the vista from the within the building, perfectly framed in the modulating of the openings; and the nocturnal view, with the tower converted into a lantern that emits the light from its geometrically perforated skin, thus creating a pixeled image.

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Ferrater与Martí团队在拉丁美洲的城市背景下建起一座巴西热带建筑,这很明显是密斯的风格的延续,尤其是针对无序城市空间的设计特征,另外,建筑师也参考了Oscar Niemeyer的感官与轨迹策略,Guinle公园住宅综合体inRio de Janeiro的立面开窗也体现在本项目立面模块的组成之中。当前而言,Affonso Eduardo Reidy、Carmen Portinho,以及圣保罗早期建筑师Lina Bo Bardi作品之中的轻盈感与纪念性根植于“密斯式”空间和“Gramscian”空间的表达。

The Ferrater and Martí team have filtered this carryover of OAB’s work to a Latin American context through Brazilian tropical architecture. To be sure, the basis continues to beMies van der Rohe; especially the Mies that was abundantly qualified to respond to the disorder of the setting and the irregularity of the land lot. But here the references to the sensual and tangential trajectories of Oscar Niemeyer are essential in the experience of the entrance; and the influence of the latticework openings or muxarabiof Lucio Costa in the Guinle Park residential complex inRio de Janeiro is seminal in the composition of the façade module. Present, too, is the lightness and monumentality of some of the buildings of Affonso Eduardo Reidy and Carmen Portinho,and of the early Lina Bo Bardi in São Paulo, rooted in a “Gramscian” interpretation of technology and of “Miesian” space.

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就类型学的观点而言,这进一步表达了巴塞罗那Mediapro公司总部的特征。在这里,结构网格的几何形态构成了更为复杂的背景,那么这就需要扇形楼板的结构化装配。Mediapro塔楼的入口更加正向与直接,但是几乎没有深度,只是在通高的地面上构成了一个纯净向内的序列,这个柏拉图式纯粹空间的设计灵感来源于密斯的作品纽约西格拉姆大楼。当人们进入建筑,其注意力会被柜台所吸引,整个空间里有三个竖向交通体,其中有两个能够通向螺旋形式的停车场,这个部分如同Antoni Gaudí在巴塞罗那的作品,La Pedrera,一座包含有卫生间和楼梯的地下室。人们的目光会被充满了光线和植物的中央院落所吸引,若想进入到这个空间,人们就必须需要转换方向从而进入位于柜台后侧的垂直空间, Oscar Niemeyer团队所设计的里约热内卢文化中心的空间序列也是如此。

From a typological point of view this is one step further from the Mediapro headquarters on the Diagonal in Barcelona (2005-2008). Here,the geometric finesse of the structural grid, which is at once form, composition and façade, is transposed to a far more difficult context, on an irregular plot, which calls for complex assemblies of the structure of fan-shaped floor slabs. While the entrance in the Mediapro tower was frontal and direct, with little depth, here it is a sequence that is cleanly generated in the setting back and stepping of the volume, in a double-height ground floor, which introduces us, via a transitional feature that is an homage of sorts to Alvaro Siza Vieira, to a platonic, centripetal space that draws its inspiration from Mies’s Seagram Building in New York. After keeping the visitor’s attention at the counter and at the far end which houses a battery of three elevators that go up the tower and two that go down to a parking area in spiral form, like the basement of Antoni Gaudí’s La Pedrera in Barcelona, and which contains the restrooms and the stairs, the visitor’s gaze is conducted towards a patio, a lavish affair of space, light and vegetation. In this way the body of whosoever enters has to turn in the opposite direction, as in the Rio de Janeiro Ministry of Culture by Oscar Niemeyer’s team, in order to accede, in the pinched passageway behind the counter, to the space that leads to the vertical accesses.

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建筑的几何特征自信地展现在立面开口上。在真正意义上的理性主义之中,所有的复杂性都展现在简洁明显的适应性里,而这种适应性会让人联想到诸如Pierre Chareau和巴黎Maison de Verrein的内部立面,其形式展现了对称楼层平面的序列感。当人们走近建筑的立面,就会感受到内部的“三明治空间”,这个说法最初来源于Colin Rowe。这里不仅仅有适应性的电影场景空间,有着全景相机角度,同时还有着极简主义阳台,这构成了立面的主要尺度与视角,同时也构成了日式“之间”空间的特性表达。这看起来就像是一个垂直形态的榻榻米,其中有着方形开口,这个空间同时也是针对GRC预制混凝土轻质构件的研究,证明其可以作为建筑的抗震元素使用。插入式构件暗示着拱顶的使用,也表达了整座建筑的组装特征,例如建筑的适应性开口和整体塔楼的旋转形式。建筑中没有锐角空间,并且存在着空白空间,建筑师十分强调建筑的细部特征。

This confidence in geometry culminates in the composition of the modulation of the openings of the façade. Once again, in true rationalist fashion, all the complexity is resolved in the apparent simplicity of a modulation that also refers us to Pierre Chareau and the interior façade of the Maison de Verrein Paris; and expresses in its form the desired order of a symmetrical floor plan. One arrives at afelicitous composition of the façades, which is enjoyed from the interior “sandwich space,” as Colin Rowe described it. Notonly are the views framed in the modulationand a cinematic space is fostered, panoramic camera-style, but a minimal balcony area is created on the façade for the human figure, an interstice that draws on Japanese in-between spaces. This is like a vertical tatami,square and squared, of six modules, with an opening in the center which occupies the four middle ones. A rich final result to the search for the lightweight component of prefabricated concrete of GRC, calculated as an element of an anti-seismic structure. An insert able component which would metaphorically signify the keystone of the vault, which will permit the assembly of each component in a total building: from the modulated openings to the stepped, pivoted form of the tower. And which enhance the essential detail of a corner resolved by negating the leading edge, because of the absence of the sharp point and the presence of the empty space.

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总结来说,这座建筑代表了一系列成熟的设计策略,建筑并没有远离城市环境,这里还有着诸如Luis Barragáns、Ignacio Díaz Moraleses、Rafael Urzúas、Pedro Castellanoses等大师的作品,通过另一个不同风格的超现实主义建筑,类似的仪式感、空间感在 Barragáns的作品中也能得以表达,其中的收缩与舒展、矛盾与开放,都环绕着周围的环境而构成,从而形成文艺复兴时期绘画作品的构图与风格。

To sum up, a lesson in maturity which rises not very far fromthe urban environment in which the Luis Barragáns, Ignacio Díaz Moraleses, Rafael Urzúas and Pedro Castellanoses of the Tapatía School began experimenting at one time.Today, with another architecture, ultra-contemporary and of a different school, similar ritual, spatial and sensual itineraries are seen to those inBarragán’s work, with its systole and diastole, contradictions and spatial openings, and with itsviewpoints, ever framed towards the surroundings, seeking the composition and modulation of the paintings of the Renaissance.

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建筑设计:OAB
地点:墨西哥
类别:办公建筑
主创建筑师:OAB, Xavier Martí & Carlos Ferrater
合作方:Montse Trilla
联合建筑设计:Estudio Hidalgo, álvaro Beruben
面积:289.0 ㎡
项目时间:2018年
摄影:Alejo Bagué
制造商:Schindler, Pacific Cast Concrete, Grupo Tenerife, Ventalum
室内设计:FF Arquitectura
安装工程:Construvida

Architects: OAB
Location: Av. Patria 1721, Lomas de Atemajac, Zapopan, Jal., Mexico
Category: Office Buildings
Lead Architects: OAB, Xavier Martí & Carlos Ferrater
Collaborator: Montse Trilla
Associate Architects: Estudio Hidalgo, álvaro Beruben
Area: 289.0 ㎡
Project Year: 2018
Photographs: Alejo Bagué
Manufacturers: Schindler, Pacific Cast Concrete, Grupo Tenerife, Ventalum
Interior Design: FF Arquitectura
Installations Engineering: Construvida

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