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对话Giorgi Khmaladze——浅谈建筑观第1张图片


“We Turn Every Project into an Opportunity”: In Conversation with Giorgi Khmaladze

由专筑网飞鱼,小R编译

建筑师Giorgi Khmaladze于1982年生于格鲁吉亚第比利斯。2002年毕业于第比利斯国家艺术学院,之后他被伦敦AA建筑学院录取,但他无法支付学费,因此他留在了格鲁吉亚,做自己的项目,同时参加各种国际建筑竞赛。2010年,Khmaladze 是第一位获得哈佛大学GSD全额奖学金的格鲁吉亚人,该奖学金一部分由学校授予,一部分由格鲁吉亚政府授予。这位建筑师2012年获得建筑学硕士学位,之后回到第比利斯继续工作。2014年,他的Gas Station/McDonald项目获得了2014年ArchDaily 商业建筑年度大奖,其他项目则有2010年上海世博会格鲁吉亚国家馆和第比利斯咖啡生产厂。他的小型办公楼采用玻璃体量与裸露的混凝土结构结合设计。在下文中,我们探讨了这位建筑师的设计目的、灵感来源,以及项目的发展历程。

Architect Giorgi Khmaladze was born in Tbilisi, Georgia in 1982. After graduating from the Tbilisi State Academy of Art in 2002, he was accepted to AA in London but at that time he could not afford studying there. He remained in Georgia, working on his own projects, as well as taking part in various international architecture competitions. In 2010, Khmaladze became the first Georgian who was accepted to Harvard’s GSD on full scholarship, which was provided partially by the university and partially by the Georgian government. He graduated with Master’s in Architecture in 2012 and returned to his practice in Tbilisi. In 2014, his groundbreaking Gas Station/McDonald’s in Batumi won 2014 ArchDaily Building of the Year Award in Commercial Architecture. The architect’s other projects include Georgia National Pavilion at 2010 Shanghai Expo and Coffee Production Plant in Tbilisi. We met at the architect’s small office located at an attractive prismatic glass volume with a pronounced concrete exoskeleton to his own design. We discussed the architect’s intentions, inspirations, and that every one of his projects starts from scratch.

对话Giorgi Khmaladze——浅谈建筑观第2张图片


Vladimir Belogolovsky(下文称为VB):作为一位建筑师,你怎么评价你的工作呢?

Giorgi Khmaladze(下文称为GK):我们为业主设计建筑。事实上,在设计过程中,我们会成为合作伙伴。我们通过解决各种各样的设计问题来回应他们的设计要求。但是最重要的是,我们把每一个项目当成一次营造空间的实验和创新机会。无论如何,我们都在尝试这种做法。当然,我们的业主并不是总知道自己想要什么,因此我们建筑师就需要坚持自己。我们与他们合作,帮助他们打开思路,有时帮助他们发现他们真实的想法和需求。

VB:在一次采访中你提到,“在我们的工作室中,我们尝试打破建筑边界来解决一些问题,同时做一系列尝试”。

GK:一方面。我们的设计都会充分考虑当地的建造条件和预算。另一方面,我们行事低调,因为业主经常会对各种问题征求我们的意见。他们选择建筑场地,这在格鲁吉亚是一种典型的做法。

Vladimir Belogolovsky: How would you describe your work as an architect?
Giorgi Khmaladze: We work with our clients who commission us to design buildings. We actually become partners in the mission of achieving a common goal. We respond to their briefs by trying to solve various programmatic issues. But most importantly, we turn every project into an opportunity, of finding enough space for experimenting and innovation. We try, anyway. Of course, our clients don’t always know what they want, so the architects are often asked to assist them in preparing the brief. We are working with them to help them open up and sometimes even discover their true intentions and needs. We use those opportunities to our advantage.

VB: In one of your interviews you said, “At our studio, we try to push boundaries of design by challenging each project with the right questions and series of experiments.”
GK: On the one hand, we experiment as much as possible with the design by considering feasibility in terms of local construction capabilities and budget. On the other hand, we also try to be careful because very often clients ask for our opinions on all kinds of issues. They range from choosing the right site to developing a program. This is quite typical here in Georgia.

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VB:第比利斯因它独特的历史结构而闻名,因此我们可以惊讶地发现在市中心有很多独特的现代建筑,它们的地理位置和伟大的古老地标平等共存。这座城市现在非常有活力和现代性,因为它包含的一些典型的现代建筑。你对格鲁吉亚现在的建筑创新有什么看法?你如何评价像你这样的建筑师的一些契机呢?

GK:你所描述的情况是以前政府想将格鲁吉亚带入21世纪所作努力的结果。当Mikheil Saakashvili开始执政(2004-2013),他非常强调城市中的现代建筑,以及建筑师在整个项目中位于主导地位。很多外国建筑师被政府请来设计城市中的重要公共建筑。在20世纪90年代内战期间,这在建筑界是非常令人振奋的事情,因为这里并没有建筑师的太多机会。之后,建筑师成为了城市更新修复的核心主力。这一发展由政府发起,但是由私人企业执行。因此,对于当地建筑师就有很多机会,包括我的团队。我们开始做竞赛并提高讨论的层次。这不仅只是专业的事,到处都是新建筑,你不可能忽视它们。事实上,许多新建筑的地理位置并不理想,管理也并不完善,但最重要的是,业主和公众都对建筑有很强的兴趣。

VB: Tbilisi is known for its characteristic historical fabric, so it is surprising to see so many uncompromisingly contemporary buildings right in the heart of the city where they are positioned to be equal with prominent older landmarks. The city is now very dynamic and modern because it embraces very bold contemporary architecture. What do you think about the current state of architectural innovation here in Georgia? How would you assess opportunities for architects like yourself here?
GK: What you are describing is the result of our former government’s efforts to bring Georgia into the 21st century. When Mikheil Saakashvili’s government [2004-2013] came to power, there was a strong emphasis on modernizing the country and architecture played a very central role in this process of development. Many foreign architects were hired directly by that government to design a number of key public buildings right in the heart of the city. That was very refreshing for the profession because, during the civil war in the 1990s, there were no opportunities for architects here. Then architecture became an integral part of the renewal process. This development was led by the government but also followed by the private sector. So, many opportunities came for local architects, including my practice. We started having competitions and it raised the level of the discussion. It is not just a matter of professional circles. The new architecture is everywhere; you can’t avoid it. For sure, the situation here is still not ideal. Regulations are not always well defined but what’s important is that there is a strong interest in architecture both on the sides of the clients and the public.

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VB:你认为你们工作中的主要目的是什么?

GK:我的目的通常是满足业主的需求并落实每一个项目。我必须采用建筑语汇满足业主。当然,我通常将设计赋予一些积极的情感,与自然的关系以及超越实用主义的需求等,这些都是重要的因素,同时试图让业主看到设计的价值。我不会将自己个人的想法强加给业主。他们讨论时,我通常会回应他们。

VB:你能谈谈你的加油站和麦当劳建筑吗?

GK:这是很好的机会,将两个完全不同的项目通过创新的解决方法结合在一起。设计概念是将两个项目采用浑然一体的方式相互整合。然而,这两个项目并不相同,在经验和视觉上都应该分隔开。业主希望我们采用两个低矮的体量,占满整个场地。但是我们提出将两个功能块压缩成紧凑的形式。并且,将娱乐休闲空间占主导部分。我非常满意这一建筑,并不是它的形式,而是事实上确实形成了很多公共空间。从餐厅里,你看不到加油站,而在加油站,你也看不到餐厅。它们之间相互独立,但又通过单一、浑然一体的符号化形式结合到一起。并不是每一座建筑都需要符号化,但是对于这座建筑,它的项目和形式上都非常成功,它有很高的辨识度,并且获得了积极回响。

VB: How would you describe the main intentions of your work?
GK: My intentions are always tied to my clients’ intentions and the specifics of each project. I must respond to the pragmatics first so that clients are satisfied. Of course, I always try to push the design to provoke positive emotions, celebrate nature and go beyond utilitarian needs is an equally important function. And I try to avoid clients who don’t see any value in design. Still, I don’t bring my preconceived notions to my clients. They start the conversation and I always respond.

VB: Could you talk about your Gas Station/McDonald’s building in Batumi?
GK: This was a good opportunity to combine two very distinctive programs that required an innovative solution. The idea was to integrate two programs into one in the most seamless way. Yet, these programs are so different that they needed to be separated both experientially and visually. The client expected us to occupy the entire site with two blocky, low buildings, each for its program, but what we proposed was to squeeze the two programs into a very compact form and leave as much space as possible open to recreation. I am proud of the result, not the form but the fact that so much space was given back to the public. From the restaurant, you can’t see the gas station and from the gas station, you don’t see the restaurant. They are completely independent and yet, work together as a singular, seamless urban form, an iconic form. Not that every building needs to be iconic but, in this case, it works successfully both in terms of its programs and form, which has become an icon that people recognize and respond to very positively.

对话Giorgi Khmaladze——浅谈建筑观第5张图片


VB:用一个词或一个短语来形容你的建筑风格或者你想要达到的感觉?

GK:简洁但不简单。激发灵感、无定义、未知、因调研为基础。

VB:你可以谈谈你的设计方法吗?

GK:它通常是一个过程,我们花大量的时间去研究它。我们从来不依赖于已经存在的解决方法。每一个项目都是独特的,我通常需要一个安静的空间去画草图,之后我的团队配合我。我决定设计方向和概念。我们通过讨论并最终确定方案,这在设计之初是很难预测的。确保设计方案的质量,同时一些业主也有他们自己的想法,我们会花足够的时间进行比较,最终,我们会采取能够接受的方式来解决这一问题。我们会不断努力,直到达到想要的结果。在这种情况下,我们的建筑师会遵从我的指导和想法。如果只是简单地遵从业主的想法,就不会有创新。你必须超越想法。

VB: What single words or short phrases would you use to describe your architecture or the kind of architecture that you would like to achieve?
GK: Simple but not primitive. Inspiring. Undefined. Unknown. Investigation-based.

VB: Could you talk about your design approach?
GK: It is always a process. We spend a lot of time on research. We never rely on ready-made solutions. Every project is very specific. I typically need a quiet space where I initiate my sketches and then my team joins me. I define the direction and concept. I initiate discussions that eventually lead to results that are hard to predict in the beginning. To be sure everything has been considered and the best possible decisions are made, some clients bring their own ideas and we usually spend fair amount of time developing options for comparison, but at the end of the day, we only proceed with solutions that are acceptable to us. We never stop until we get to that point. In that sense, my architecture is led by my convictions and my ideas. And you can’t make anything distinctive if you simply follow your client’s brief. You must go beyond what you are asked.

对话Giorgi Khmaladze——浅谈建筑观第6张图片


VB:因此,你想成为什么样的建筑师呢?

GK:我认为伟大的建筑是在技术与想象力、个人与公共的需求,以及可利用的资源之间达到平衡。这一平衡是合适的比例,在不同的项目中是不同的。在每一个项目中,我们试图明确这一比例。在很长一段时间里,我们没有固定的模式来思考现在的建筑。但是现在,我们的时代已经到来。我希望把我们的每一个项目当成一种机会,来创造一些未知的东西并推动建筑向前发展。

VB:但我欣赏你的作品时,我不能将它定义为格鲁吉亚的建筑。我看到的是一个不妥协的当代建筑,它也可以位于其他地方。你有没有对建筑的地域性有一些思考呢?

GK:如果我们讨论这些项目的形象,反映地域传统特点确实不是我们的主要关注点。尽管有些形象已经确定。我们现在正在做的一个项目是历史中心,它就采用明确的传统平面和特点。因此,我们以某一种方式来回应文化背景,在我们的项目中,这种方式并不是明显体现在立面和建筑细节中。我们不想压抑自己的潜能。不管怎样,历史感在当地建筑中是一种折衷主义。在我们的设计中,我们希望去寻找它。

VB: So, what kind of architecture are you after?
GK: I think that great architecture is in a skillful balance between imagination, private and public needs, and available resources. The balance is in the careful ratio of these issues, which varies from project to project. In every project, we attempt to identify this ratio, and in this search, we want to be bold and brave. For a long time, we did not have stability and economic means to even think about contemporary architecture here, but now our time has come. I want to use every one of our projects as an opportunity to create something unknown and push architecture forward.

VB: When I look at your work, I can’t identify it with Georgia. What I see is uncompromisingly contemporary architecture that could be done in other places as well. Are you at all concerned with your architecture’s regional identity?
GK: Reflecting on the regional traditions is not a major part of our intentions in general, if we are talking about the appearance of our projects. Not that it is something predetermined, though. We are now working on one project in the historical center, which has clearly visible ties to traditional planning and character. So, we do respond to the cultural context in certain ways, but this isn’t necessarily evident in the appearance and architectural details of our projects. We try not to limit our potentials. Anyway, historically, the local architecture here is very eclectic. In our designs, we look forward.

对话Giorgi Khmaladze——浅谈建筑观第7张图片


VB:你从哪里获得灵感?

GK:我不能指出某一种方法。我的所有方案都来自于直觉。任何事情都会激发灵感。但是,再次强调,我们工作室通常从建筑语汇和建筑特性入手。

VB:如果让你说出在建于15年前的最能代表格鲁吉亚现代主义的某一座建筑的名字,你认为哪一座最符合?

GK:我喜欢我们的当地建筑公司Laboratory of Architecture #3设计的第比利斯媒体中心。因为它将一部分空间面向公众,并且这座独特建筑非常具有创新性。另外还有另一个项目,是由MUA建筑工作室设计的Fabrika招待所,这两个项目都十分吸引大众。

VB: Where do you derive your inspirations from?
GK: I can’t point to any particular sources. All my projects are developed very intuitively. Anything could become an inspiration. But again, our work always starts from the pragmatics and specifics.

VB: And if I asked you to name some buildings, built in the last 15 years that you think are the most representative of contemporary architecture here in Georgia, which ones would they be?
GK: I like the work of our local firm Laboratory of Architecture #3 and specifically their Mediatheque here in Tbilisi. I like projects that give back something to the public and this particular building is very inventive and generous. I would also name another project here in the capital, Fabrika Hostel by another local studio, MUA. Both projects engage the public the way I think architecture should.

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对话Giorgi Khmaladze——浅谈建筑观第9张图片


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图片:Khmaladze Architects

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