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如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第1张图片

Image Courtesy of Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau

Female Architects, We See You

由专筑网小R,王雪纯编译

女性是设计圈中一股坚实的力量,她们就职于建筑、设计、城市规划等不同的领域,然而,尽管随着女权运动的崛起,女性设计师的贡献仍然受着大众的质疑、比较,甚至冷落。

“Metropolis”杂志回顾了建筑领域中女权主义的历史,纵观女性所见证的时代的进步,也回顾了女性曾失去优势的时代。

Women are imperative members of the design community, creating innovative and inspiring work in the fields of architecture, design, and urban planning. However, even with the rise of the women's movement, their contributions are still being questioned, compared, or taken for granted.
Metropolis Magazine looked back at the history of feminism in architecture, shedding the light on the times when the advocates witnessed unprecedented progress, and times when they lost their advantage.

如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第2张图片

St. Joseph’s College, 1975. Image Courtesy of Women’s School of Planning and Architecture Records, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College (North Hampton, Massachusetts)

“你好!女建筑师!你戴着安全帽穿着运动鞋穿梭在校园之中,进行着各项设计、策划、学习、写作等工作,你打开犀牛、查看各项表格、平衡着工作与生活。如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?”——Mimi Zeiger, Metropolis杂志作者

“Female architects, I see you... I see you in your hard hats or Nike kicks designing, curating, teaching, and writing. I see you helming firms and leading architecture schools. I see you opening Rhino, crunching spreadsheets, and juggling work-life balance...If we can't see ourselves, who will see us? - Mimi Zeiger, Metropolis author”


如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第3张图片

Image Courtesy of Women’s School of Planning and Architecture Records, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College (North Hampton, Massachusetts)

在过去的几十年里,女建筑师的数量一直有所增加,但是她们的影响力仍然小于男性建筑师。布法罗大学建筑与规划学院的教授Despina Stratigakos在2016年推出了一本著作,标题为《女建筑师在哪里?》。作者得问题引发了读者的兴趣。作者发现了历史中女建筑师的贡献,但是她同时也发现,这些问题从没有出现在图书馆或是资料文献之中。

Although the number of female architects has increased over the past couple of decades, their impact remains transcended by the works of men in the industry. University of Buffalo's School of Architecture and Planning professor Despina Stratigakos published a book in 2016 titled Where are the Women Architects? In the book, the author posed the question to provoke the readers, since she realized that there is a richness in the history and people, but did not see them reflected in museums and publications.

如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第4张图片

Image © Susana Torre

或许首次在建筑行业中聚焦女性的尝试是在上世纪70年代的展览与刊物之中,其标题为“美国建筑业里的女性:历史与当代视角”,于1977年在布鲁克林博物馆由纽约建筑联盟组织。展览中展示了过去与当代对整个行业做出贡献的女性作品。

Perhaps the first attempt to shed the light on women in architecture was during the 1970's exhibition and publication titled Women in American Architecture: A Historic and Contemporary Perspective. The event was organized by the Architectural League of New York and its newly founded Archive of Women in Architecture, at the Brooklyn Museum in 1977. The exhibition was filled with drafting tables and presentations of women who have contributed to the industry throughout history and contemporary times.

如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第5张图片

Image Courtesy of Metropolis

为了回答“女建筑师在哪里”这样的问题,女建筑师们陷入了“要想出名,必须完美”的陷阱,相关的人物有诸如Zaha Hadid、Jeanne Gang、 Elizabeth Diller等人为代表。这样的“明星效应”,在我们所处的文化和历史环境下,反而使得人们难以承认女建筑师的作品。性别歧视、种族主义、性别取向、学习机会、技术缺乏、家庭责任等方面都对女性在建筑领域的发展产生了一定的限制。

To answer the question of "where are the women architects", women fall in the trap of having to be exceptionally great to be seen, due to the remarkable works and stardom of Zaha Hadid, Jeanne Gang, and Elizabeth Diller. Along with the "star system", cultural and historical conditions have kept people from recognizing the works of female architects and designers. Conditions such as gender discrimination, racism, sexual orientation, limited access to architecture schools, lack of technical education, and domestic work responsibilities have all stood in the way of recognizing women in the field.

如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第6张图片

Image Courtesy of Women’s School of Planning and Architecture Records, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College (North Hampton, Massachusetts)

“在办公室中的女性,有多少人能够真正享受婚姻或是个人生活?在做到真正自由地让女性投入职业生活中之前,对于个人生活与工作之间的协调则成为了女性发展的一大障碍。”——Susana Torre,《Women in American Architecture Catalog》编辑

“How many women partners in the most important offices are married or devote significant time to developing and enjoying a ‘personal’ life? Until that changes, until women are more nearly as free as men to devote their energies to their profession, the difficulties of reconciling the demands of personal and professional life will continue to be a major obstacle for women. - Susana Torre, editor of Women in American Architecture Catalog”

如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第7张图片

Image Courtesy of Noel Phyllis Birkby Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College (Northampton, Massachusetts)

如今,世界似乎更加注重女权主义。人们也更加了解女性设计师、顾问、施工方,同时也包括平等、性别认同,以及种族问题。Metropolis杂志的作者Mimi Zeiger也就建筑中女权主义的历史进行了深入地探讨,同时还参访了女权运动的主要成员。

Today, the world is more conscious of feminist practices. People are more aware of female designers, consultants, and builders, embracing gender equality, sexual identity, and issues of race. Metropolis author Mimi Zeiger digs deeper into the history of feminism in architecture and interviews key members of the women's movement who helped provoke change in the design and architecture industry, in her full article.

如果我们都无法认可自己,那么谁会认可我们呢?——女建筑师,你好!第8张图片

Image © Susana Torre

        
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