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7 Houses of the Future - According to the Past

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

人们常常认为科幻小说有些过时,但事实上历史上存在着许多人们对于未来生活方式的畅想,未来学家们很早就开始构思先进的技术、发展趋势、社会变革与进步会对人们的生活方式产生怎样的影响。在1958年至1963年是“美国未来主义的黄金时期”,美国国家航天局于那个时期成立,诸如The Jetsons等文化代表也接连出现。当时的人们也对未来的建筑进行了一系列的猜想。

因此,NeoMam工作室与Angie’s List综合了7种对未来住宅的历史猜想。其中包括上世纪30年代人们想象的滚动住宅,也有上世纪60年代的水下住宅,这些想法十分有趣、理想化,但也有些荒谬。这7座结合了建筑材料、施工技术、建筑风格的未来住宅似乎代表着人们对于未来的乐观精神。

接下来是7座未来住宅的介绍。这些猜想来自于Angie’s List与NeoMam工作室的合作,该工作室也推测了纽约中央公园的形态,以及悉尼歌剧院的7个设计方案。

It is often claimed that “there is nothing more outdated than science fiction.” Indeed, history is awash with speculation on future ways of living, as futurists imagine how advancements in technology, trends, and social norms could alter how we live, and what we live in. The period between 1958 and 1963 could be described as “The Golden Age of American Futurism” where technological milestones such as the founding of NASA coincided with cultural icons such as The Jetsons. Some of this era’s wildest ideas centered on how the houses of the future would look.
In this spirit, NeoMam Studios and Angie’s List have developed seven historic ideas of how houses of the future could look. From the Rolling Houses of the 1930s to the Underwater Houses of the 1960s, the ideas are at once astute, idealistic, and outlandish. These seven “houses of the future” range in building materials, construction techniques, and architectural styles, yet united by a common optimism on what the future of architecture could hold.
Below we have republished the seven ideas for your inspection. For a more detailed description of each idea, visit the Angie’s List publication here. The collaboration follows on from similar previous endeavors by NeoMam, who recently speculated on what New York’s Central Park could have looked like, and seven rejected proposals for Sydney Opera House.

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滚动住宅(20世纪30年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:1934年9月的出版的《Everyday Science and Mechanics》中,编辑们认为,滚动住宅将会在未来风靡全世界,人们会居住在一个巨大的球体之中。这种创新思维来源于让建造建筑变得更加简单的想法,但是如果你热衷于收藏陶器等装饰品,那么居住于此就不是一个好想法。

Rolling Houses (1930s)
Angie’s List: The September 1934 issue of Everyday Science and Mechanics assured readers that spherical houses would soon become highly fashionable, even if the appeal of living in a giant hamster ball isn’t immediately obvious. The innovation was intended to make the remote construction and delivery of new homes more straightforward, as traveling in the ball would be a bad idea if you valued your crockery and ornaments.

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太空住宅(20世纪60年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:1953年12月的《科幻冒险》杂志封面就是一座太空中的有着玻璃穹顶的建筑。由波多黎各封面艺术家Alex Schomburg创作,这个漂浮的雪球中,建筑屋顶的滑道将太空车辆发射到未知的区域。

Space Houses (1960s)
Angie’s List: Just four years prior to the Dome House, the cover of the December 1953 Science Fiction Adventures magazine proposed a glass dome – but in outer space. Puerto Rican cover artist Alex Schomburg’s free-floating snow globes come complete with rooftop chutes for launching space hatchbacks out into the great unknown.

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玻璃住宅(20世纪20年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:这座建筑应用了新型玻璃,能够有效吸收紫外线,Vitaglass住宅能够给人们提供全年的日光浴,在阴天的时候也可以通过灯具来获取光线。就像其他创新型建筑那样,Vitaglass住宅也在城市动物园进行了测试,被用作猴子的小屋来进行研究。但是在战争期间,玻璃是一种具有争议的材料,人们认为这种流行趋势会影响人们的室外活动的积极性。

Glass Houses (1920s)

Angie’s List: Utilizing a special new kind of glass designed to admit the ultraviolet, ahem, “health rays” of the sun, the Vitaglass house would offer a year-round summer thanks to the addition of mercury arc lamps for gloomy days. Like all the best new architectural innovations, Vitaglass was first tested in the monkey house of a city zoo. But even plain glass was controversial during the interwar years, with worries that its new popularity would discourage people from ever going outside.

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移动住宅(20世纪20年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:“Equal parts Mad Max: Fury Road and Wacky Races”,这种乌托邦使得人们想象出具有社会意义的移动住宅,其屋顶花园能够吸收汽车排放出的碳,让“数字游牧一族”的生活更加环保。

Moving Houses (1920s)
Angie’s List: Equal parts Mad Max: Fury Road and Wacky Races, this utopian vision posits a very social mobile home version of architectural tendencies that we’re actually seeing today. Its rooftop garden, for example, might offset the carbon footprint of the vehicle, easing the conscience of the steam-powered digital nomads onboard.

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水下住宅(20世纪60年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:1964年,通用汽车公司推出了未来2号展馆,这一举措让当时纽约世博会的参观者们非常震撼。整个世界似乎都在看着这一项目,通用公司认为人类还未征服海洋。工作人员Ray Dashner 告诉参观者:“我们全新的知识与技巧让我们能够创造奇妙的水下世界。这是海洋给予我们的馈赠。”

Underwater Houses (1960s)
Angie’s List: General Motors created the Futurama II Pavilion to blow the minds of visitors to the New York World's Fair in 1964. While the rest of the world was staring at the stars, GM noted that we still have whole oceans that remain unconquered. “Our new knowledge and skills — new power and mobility — have given us a new and wondrous underwater world,” guide Ray Dashner told visitors on the tour. “A miracle of gifts from the limitless treasury of the sea.”

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轻质住宅(20世纪40年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:在1942年1月,《未完成的世界》的作者提出了这样一个想法,即通过轻质的“气胶”来建造建筑,这样能够减少建造所用的资源。在当今世界,最轻的材料便是石墨烯气凝胶,这种材料可以用于3D打印,研究者们都在研究如何适当地应用这种材料,来减少传统施工技术对于环境的影响。

Lightweight Houses (1940s)
Angie’s List: The January 1942 authors of “This Unfinished World” offered a vision that gets closer every day: using super-light “aerogel” to create buildings that are earthquake-resistant and require less resources to build. Today, the lightest material in the world is graphene aerogel, which can be 3D printed, and boffins are hard at work figuring how to use the material to lighten the environmental toll of conventional construction techniques.

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穹顶住宅(20世纪50年代)

来自Angie’s List的描述:穹顶住宅的乌托邦主义概念其实是可持续发展的驱动要素,旋转的穹顶能够有效地利用太阳能。虽然室外穹顶的水培植物种植地的概念并广泛应用在21世纪的花园之中,但是,预计在2023年,水培行业的价值总体上将增加三倍,达到7.25亿美元。

Dome Houses (1950s)
Angie’s List: The dome house’s ecopunk utopianism took sustainability as its driving factor. The rotating dome would allow homeowners to make efficient use of the sun’s energy. And while hydroponic vegetable patches like those outside the dome house do not yet feature in the average 21st-century garden, the hydroponics industry, in general, is set to triple in value to $725m between now and 2023.


图片:Angie's List

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