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关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第1张图片

Tomás Saraceno"Sundial for Spatial Echoes".  Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

“我们设计了一次展览,展示了包豪斯的多样性”
"We Designed an Exhibition that Presents the Bauhaus in all its Dazzling Diversity": Barbara Holzer Explains her Design for the New Bauhaus Museum

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

在4月5日至7日,德国魏玛举办了包豪斯博物馆的开幕仪式,展出了包豪斯百年庆典的历史作品。

包豪斯博物馆位于Neue博物馆旁侧,这座混凝土建筑由德国建筑师Prof. Heike Hanada设计。这位建筑师秉承包豪斯学校的极简主义策略,设计了这座有着几何形态和横向划分的5层方形建筑。博物馆中的永久性展览由Holzer Kobler Architekturen事务所的Barbara Holzer策划与设计,其中有世界最为古老的包豪斯藏品,这些藏品曾促进了现代设计界发展,另外还展出了包豪斯学校的著名作品。

Holzer接受了ArchDaily记者的采访,阐述了展览空间的设计过程,以及在设计过程中所遇到的挑战。

On the weekend of the 5th-7th of April, the city of Weimar celebrated the opening of the recently-completed Bauhaus Museum, along with its permanent exhibition of the 100-year history of Bauhaus.
Located near the Neue Museum, the concrete structure was designed by German architect Prof. Heike Hanada. The architect followed the school’s minimalist approach, and developed a 5-storey cubic building, with a clearly defined geometric form and horizontal grooves all around the facade. The museum’s permanent exhibition, which was designed and curated by Barbara Holzer of Holzer Kobler Architekturen, houses the world’s oldest Bauhaus collection, bringing forth debates on contemporary design and showcasing the school’s most notable inventions.
In an exclusive interview with ArchDaily, Holzer explains the creative process of designing the exhibition space, and some of the challenges she faced while exhibiting Bauhaus' distinguished works.

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Bauhaus Museum by Night. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

Dima Stouhi(下文称为DS):你还记得展览的设计过程吗?

Barbara Holzer(下文称为BH):三座全新的博物馆分别在包豪斯曾开设的地点同时开放来庆贺包豪斯的百年庆典,这三个地点分别是魏玛、德绍,以及柏林。魏玛是包豪斯的起源地,因此也成为了现代主义与文化的中心,并且也成为包豪斯的重要纪念场所。Holzer Kobler Architekturen事务所在包豪斯博物馆中设计了永久性展厅。我们对于展览设计的概念围绕着一个问题,即“如何将包豪斯设计典例带入展览之中”?

Dima Stouhi: How did you come up with the exhibition's design?
Barbara Holzer: Three new museums are opening in the original Bauhaus locations Weimar, Dessau and Berlin to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Bauhaus. The new exhibition in Weimar – the origin of the Bauhaus movement – will add an important element to Weimar’s significance as a centre of modernism and culture. Holzer Kobler Architekturen designed the permanent exhibition in the new Bauhaus-Museum. We started the conception of the exhibition with the question of “How do you constitute an exhibition for the Bauhaus design icons”?

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Exhibition Area "The New Man". Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

BH:这是个很复杂的话题。为了展示包豪斯的古老藏品,我们设计了一座展览建筑,其中展示了包豪斯的多样性、创新型、前瞻性,但是又不能忽略其历史特征与矛盾。展览设计反应了新建筑的空间结构和包豪斯历史藏品,并通过一定的序列将其串连起来。这些主题序列各不相同,每个部分都有特定的内容。

BH: This is a very complex topic! For the presentation of the oldest Bauhaus collection, we designed an exhibition architecture that presents the Bauhaus in all its dazzling diversity, innovation and progressiveness without ignoring the ambivalent traits of its history and reception. The exhibition design reacts to the spatial structure of the new building and presents the history of Bauhaus and its collection, organized thematically. The design of these themes is varying and follows the particular statement of each chapter.

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Tomás Saraceno "Sundial for Spatial Echoes". Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

BH:展览过程从包豪斯宣言开始,这里也是对包豪斯历史的介绍。包豪斯宣言通过悬挂在展厅之上的大规模灯光装置来展示。这个多媒体装置强调出包豪斯运动的巨大影响,同时也为人们介绍其基本概念。序列的第一章名为“新人(The New Man)”,这一章解释了社会中男性与女性角色的重新定位。一系列的照片、电影、类似于祖先肖像展览的手绘作品展示了“新人”的多样表达方式和标准化生活视角,以及包豪斯的集合形式与对象。桌子相互堆叠放置在一起,展示了魏玛包豪斯大师与学生们的作品与实验。

这次展览展示了世界上最古老的包豪斯藏品,另外,展览不仅仅表达了魏玛的发展时间,同时还引申出紧接其后的德绍与柏林的历史。

BH: The exhibition tour starts with the Bauhaus Manifesto as the intellectual introduction to the history of the Bauhaus. The Manifesto is shown on a large-scale animated light installation that is suspended in one of the exhibition galleries. The media installation underlines the influence of the Bauhaus movement in its early phase and introduces the visitors in its conceptual premises. “The New Man” – the first chapter on the tour – explains the idea of re-inventing the role of man and woman in society. An impressive series of photos, films and sketches – presented similar to an ancestral portrait gallery – shows the various drafts of the “new man”, visions of standardized living, geometric forms and measured subjects created at the Bauhaus. Tables stacked and intertwined with one another are used to display a plethora of different works created by the masters and students of the Bauhaus in Weimar – as a kind of amuse-bouche showing the plurality of experiments performed at the Bauhaus.
The exhibition showcases the oldest Bauhaus collection in the world and is completely unique. Furthermore it is not only focused on the time in Weimar, but connects its history to Dessau and Berlin.

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第5张图片

Bauhaus Museum. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

DS:那么在设计时,你遇到了哪些挑战?

BH:在我眼中,包豪斯代表了历史上最为激进的设计变革。因此为这样的革新设计展览建筑就是个大挑战。

什么是展示包豪斯的最佳方式?如何在空间中强调展览对象的视觉特征?

游客会因为视觉感受而感动,所以展览必须是有趣并吸引人的。游客们会自由地选择展览主题,也会被不同的作品所吸引。我们希望设计出一个突出展品的极简主义展览空间。我们更加关注细节,因此构思了精致优雅的建筑体系,目的是强调历史作品,成为时间的见证者。

DS: What were some of the challenges that you faced while designing the exhibition?
BH: In my eyes, Bauhaus represents one of the most radical design movements in history. It is clearly an enormous challenge to design an exhibition architecture for this Avant-garde School.
What is the best way to exhibit Bauhaus? How can we show the many objects strengthening their visual presence in space?
Visitors are triggered by visual experiences. An exhibition must be interesting, fascinating, beautiful, and sometimes irritating. Visitors should have the freedom to wander from topic to topic following their own interests and the attraction of the displays. We wanted to create a very minimalistic exhibition design in order to emphasize the objects. Focusing on the details, we developed a delicate and elegant construction system intended to specially upgrade the presence of the historical objects as genuine witnesses of that time.

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Gropius Collection. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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Mies van der Rohe. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture


BH:包豪斯藏品有着严格的要求,因此展览形式也受到了很多限制。这些限制也让我们进行了许多创意性设计。建筑的形式简单,减少了材料使用,目的是让空间体现永恒特征与现代外观。建筑中,我们只应用了3种材料,其中有钢、玻璃,以及织物,除此之外没有复合材料,也没有古典主义的基座。反光的表面与色彩能够强调展览中的内容与信息。艺术多媒体装置、电影、录音让人们充分地感受展品艺术气息,在现代社会感受历史文化。在目前,计算机软件与数字技术能够完成诸多可能性,但是我们仍然选择了清晰优雅的形式,而构成精致且脆弱的“画面与场景”。这种表现形式呼应了文化、自由、创新运动的呼声。

BH: The conservational and security requirements on the Bauhaus collection are very restrictive and limit the possible forms of presentation. These restrictions forced us to be very creative in our design decisions. The simplicity of the form, the reduced presentation and the minimal use of materials give the exhibition architecture a timeless and at the same time contemporary look. We used only three materials for the construction of the entire exhibition. We focused on steel, glass, and fabric, no composite materials, no classical pedestal. The reflective surfaces and colour accents highlight the content and the objects in the exhibition. Artistic media installations, film and sound accompany the unprotected objects and open new layers of perception which brings the history into the present. In spite of the seemingly unlimited possibilities of computer aided design and digital fabrication currently available, we chose clear and elegant forms a sort of fragile “tableau”. This vulnerability in the form of presentation refers to the need of protecting cultural, liberal and innovative movements through the ages and particularly today!

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The "Stairway to Heaven". Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

DS:那么包豪斯对于建筑有哪些影响呢?

BH:我是瑞士人,在苏黎世理工学院学习。包豪斯对于那里有着很显著的影响。因此包豪斯对于我的设计作品也有很大影响。这是重要且有意义的风格,我十分佩服包豪斯运动,其贡献无法为后人所忘怀。我认为,包豪斯的概念与现代社会的相关性愈发强烈。现在这个世界的限制越来越多,我们仍然应当抱着尊敬、宽容的心态而创新设计。

DS: How has Bauhaus influenced your work?
BH: I’m Swiss, and I studied at the ETH Zurich. The influence of Bauhaus was very present at the time I studied there. The output of the Bauhaus remains influential in my work and education. It was a very significant and important style. I truly admire he Bauhaus movement. However breathtaking it may be, one must not forget the critical aspects of it! I think the idea of the Bauhaus is increasingly relevant today. In our increasingly restrictive world the responsibility for society to be re-inventive, respectful and tolerant, are, today, cutting edge.

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第9张图片

Hands on Station. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

DS:如果包豪斯运动发生在现在,它会是什么样呢?

BH:嗯,这个问题问住我了。如果在今天,这大概是场数字化运动吧。我相信数字化已经柔化了许多传统,其中包括我们的生活地点、生活方式、交流形式、工作特征等等。我们在成长过程中所学到的每件事都可能是不一样的东西。这几乎可以与工业革命相提并论,我认为数字革命会导致真正强大的革命,它能够大大提升我们的设计文化。

DS: What would Bauhaus be like if it were happening now?
BH: Oh, what a question! If there would be a Bauhaus today, I think it would be a digital one! I believe digitalization softens all our traditions: where we live, how we live, how we communicate, the way we work... Everything that we learned while growing up, will end in a completely different system. It is comparable to the industrial revolution! I think the digital revolution is and will lead to a truly powerful revolution which will advance and enhance our design culture dramatically.

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Barbara Holzer. Image © Mara Truog

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Bauhaus Museum by Night . Image © André Kühn / Klassik Stiftung Weimar

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Exhibition Opening. Image © André Kühn / Klassik Stiftung Weimar

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Bauhaus Museum Exhibition . Image © André Kühn / Klassik Stiftung Weimar

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Bauhaus Museum by Night . Image © André Kühn / Klassik Stiftung Weimar

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Exhibition Space . Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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Stage . Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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Mies van der Rohe. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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"Buhne". Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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Exhibition Upper Floor . Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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Bauhaus Foyer. Image © Andrew Alberts / Heike Hanada Laboratory of Art and Architecture

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Theodor Bogler, Stock Canc, 1923. Image © Vereinigung der Benediktiner to Maria Laach e.V.

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第22张图片

Aerial View . Image © Klassik Stiftung Weimar

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第23张图片

Unknown. ImageMarcel Breuer, Four-Piece Set Tables B9, 1925-1926

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第24张图片

Unknown. ImageMarcel Breuer, Club Chair B3, 1925

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第25张图片

Unknown. ImageMarcel Breuer, Batten Chair, 1922

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第26张图片

Alma Seidhoff-Buscher, Small Ship-Building Game, 1923. Image

关于包豪斯的百年庆典,听听这位建筑师怎么说第27张图片

Peter Keler, Cradle, 1922. Image © Jan Keler

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Eberhardt Schrammen, Five Hand Puppets, 1923. Image © Klassik Stiftung Weimar

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Wilhelm Lober, Dragonjar, 1923/1925. Image © Friedemann and Renate Lober

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Heike Hanada . Image © Ulrike Shcamoni


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