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Beyond Bauhaus——来自包豪斯的深远影响第1张图片


RIBA's Beyond Bauhaus explores the school's long-lasting impact on the UK

由专筑网麻雀,小R编译

尽管英国很少有包豪斯风格的建筑,但该运动对英国建筑产生了巨大影响。“Beyond Bauhaus”的策展人Pete Collard选择了四座展示学校影响力的建筑进行探索。

伦敦皇家英国建筑师学会的“Beyond Bauhaus”展览旨在探讨100年前成立的这所德国设计学校对英国的影响。

Collard认为,包豪斯及其创始人沃尔特·格罗皮乌斯背后的哲学对该国的建筑产生了巨大并持久影响。

Collard对Dezeen记者说:“由于现代主义的流行,包豪斯对英国的影响可能并不只是在建筑风格方面,而是更多与格罗皮乌斯在1934年提出并带到英国的哲学有关。”

“他对建筑师在社会中的角色有了新定义,采用新材料和建筑技术,在当时的实践中尚不流行,但对许多年轻建筑师而言却是具有变革性的想法。”

在展览中,Collard和策展人Valeria Carullo追溯了包豪斯学校背后的概念及其传播方式。

“我们的展览最初是展示了一些重要的包豪斯人物在1933年学校关闭后的行踪,但从那里我们考虑到了Gropius、Marcel Breuer、László Moholy-Nagy来到英国时的影响,以及上世纪30年代及以后的英国建筑的发展。”Collard说。

“我们希望表明,其影响力可以通过短暂的时刻得以追溯,例如公开演讲和展览以及任何已建成的建筑物。”

该展览展出了许多由RIBA图片档案所拍摄的图像,这些图像在由智利建筑工作室Pezo von Ellrichshausen设计的色彩鲜艳的展览中得以展示。

Collard说:“我们希望展览能够证明现代主义是一种复杂的、多层次的语言,而以包豪斯为中心的展览也可以讨论勒·柯布西耶。”

“由于展出的大部分材料都是档案,主要是2D图纸和照片,所以我们希望提供比人们预想的更有活力的展览设计。这将鼓励人们在画廊中更仔细地观察并创造更多的实体参与感的空间。”

阅读以下展览,了解Pete Collard的选择,这些选择展示了包豪斯在英国的影响力之广:

Although few overtly Bauhaus buildings were built in the UK, the movement's ideals had a huge impact on British architecture. Beyond Bauhaus curator, Pete Collard, picks four buildings that demonstrate the school's influence.
The Beyond Bauhaus exhibition at the Royal Institute of British Architects in London aims to explore the influence that the German design school, which was established 100 years ago, had in the UK.
Collard believes that it was the philosophies behind the Bauhaus, and its founder Walter Gropius, that have had the greatest lasting impact on architecture in the country.
"The impact of the Bauhaus on Britain was perhaps not stylistic, as modernism was already underway, but more to do with the philosophies that Gropius typified and brought to the UK in 1934," Collard told Dezeen.
"His vision for a newly defined role for the architect in society was centred around collaborative working, the adoption of new materials and construction technologies, ideas that were not yet prevalent in contemporary practice at that time but that was transformative to many younger architects."
Within the exhibition Collard and co-curator Valeria Carullo trace how the ideal behind the Bauhaus school, along with some of its teachers, came to the UK and how its ideals spread.
"Our exhibition initially shows 'what happened next' to some of the key Bauhaus figures in the immediate aftermath of the school's closure in 1933, but from there we consider what impact the arrival of Gropius, Marcel Breuer and László Moholy-Nagy in Britain had on British architecture during the 1930s and beyond," said Collard.
"In particular we wanted to show that influence can be traced through ephemeral moments such as public lectures and exhibitions as much as any completed buildings."
The exhibition features numerous images taken from RIBA's picture archives displayed in a brightly coloured exhibition designed by Chilean architecture studio Pezo von Ellrichshausen.
"We hope the exhibition demonstrates that modernism is a complex, multi-layered language and that a show centred around the Bauhaus can discuss Le Corbusier as well," said Collard.
"Because much of the material on display is archival and primarily 2D – drawings, photographs and ephemera – we wanted to offer a more dynamic exhibition design than people might have anticipated, something that would encourage closer looking and create a more physical engagement within the gallery space."
Read below for Pete Collard's choices from the exhibition that demonstrate the breadth of influence of the Bauhaus in the UK:

Beyond Bauhaus——来自包豪斯的深远影响第2张图片

Image courtesy of RIBA Collections

赫特福德郡建筑事务所 / Cadmore Lane初级学校 / 1959年

合作设计是格罗皮乌斯在包豪斯任职以及他后来在哈佛任教时提出的主要观点,并为他的建筑实践理论奠定了基础。 他说:“当所有成员都有机会通过表现而不是通过任命而成为领导者时,真正的领导才能出现。”

在英国,这种实践方法直到战后时代才出现,当时许多城市建筑师来设计计划中的社会住房和公共基础设施项目。

在赫特福德郡,市政局招募了一支由年轻且积极的建筑师而组成的团队,其中包括Mary Crowley和Stirrat Johnson-Marshall,以开展新学校计划。Johnson-Marshall受格罗皮乌斯于1934年访问利物浦大学时的启发,他作为城市建筑师的新职位使他将德国大师的哲学付诸实践。

该办公室才用的是一种协作实践的方式,共享技能和经验,并与教师紧密联系,以共同实现建筑和教育学科的统一。 在最初的十年中,随着赫特福德郡成为教学楼的世界典范,该市基于标准化的网格系统,并使用预制的工业组件在该市建造了100多座新设施。

Cadmore Lane Junior School by Hertfordshire County Architects Office, 1959
Collaborative design was central to Gropius' tenure at the Bauhaus and his later teaching in Harvard, and formed the basis for his theories on architecture practice. "True leadership can emerge when all members have a chance to become leaders by performance, not by appointment," he claimed.
In Britain, such approaches to practice were not seen until the post-war era, when a series of County Architects were established to design the social housing and public infrastructure projects being planned.
In Hertfordshire, the council recruited a team of young and progressive architects, including Mary Crowley and Stirrat Johnson-Marshall to deliver a programme of new schools. Johnson-Marshall had been inspired by a visit of Gropius to Liverpool University in 1934 and his new role as Deputy County Architect allowed him to bring the German master's philosophies into action.
The office operated as a collaborative practice, sharing skills and experience and liaising closely with teachers to unite the disciplines of architecture and education in a joint purpose. Over 100 new facilities were built in the county in the first ten years, based on a standardised grid system and using pre-fabricated industrial components, as Hertfordshire became a world leader in school building.

Beyond Bauhaus——来自包豪斯的深远影响第3张图片

Image courtesy of RIBA Collections

Peterlee开发公司 / Sunny Blunts庄园 / 1960年

包豪斯的一项基本原则是相信艺术应与人类生活的方方面面融为一体。格罗皮乌斯将这种精神贯彻到他的建筑实践中,正如他在1937年要求Henry Moore为他在剑桥郡的Impington乡村学院创作雕塑时所展示的那样。

尽管由于成本原因取消了该计划,但Moore的设计后来受Stevenage的一所新学校委托,这是整个赫特福德郡一项慷慨的计划,该计划将该市年度预算的百分之一用于当代艺术,并安装在学校内。

格罗皮乌斯的概念更重要的变化是抽象画家Victor Pasmore参与了达勒姆郡Peterlee新市镇的房屋设计。在Berthold Lubetkin退出该项目后,Pasmore被任命为城市设计咨询总监,他的画作是对300英亩的Sunny Blunts庄园进行美化和布局的基础。

庄园的中心是阿波罗亭子,这是由Pasmore设计的悬臂式混凝土结构,位于人工湖的上方,意图将建筑与艺术进行结合。

Sunny Blunts Estate, Peterlee, by Peterlee Development Corporation, 1960
A founding principle of the Bauhaus was the belief that art should engage with all aspects of human life. Gropius carried this ethos forward into his architecture practice, as demonstrated when he asked Henry Moore to create a sculpture for his scheme for Impington Village College in Cambridgeshire in 1937.
Although the plan was scrapped due to costs, Moore's design was later commissioned for a new school in Stevenage, part of a generous programme across Hertfordshire that saw one per cent of the county's annual budget spent on contemporary art, to be installed within the schools and grounds.
A more significant iteration of Gropius' concept saw the participation of abstract artist Victor Pasmore in the design of housing for the new town of Peterlee in County Durham. Following the early departure of Berthold Lubetkin from the project, Pasmore was appointed consulting director of urban design, using his paintings as the basis for the landscaping and layout of the 300-acre Sunny Blunts estate.
At the centre of the estate is the Apollo Pavilion, a cantilevered concrete cubist structure designed by Pasmore, set above an artificial lake as a symbol of the estate's intentions to synthesise architecture and art.

Beyond Bauhaus——来自包豪斯的深远影响第4张图片

Image courtesy of Tony Ray-Jones/RIBA Collections

New Ash Green / Eric Lyons事务所 / 1966年

在包豪斯的整个城镇中,Törten住宅区由德绍市委托,作为具有成本效益的大规模住房的实验性解决方案。 由格罗皮乌斯与包豪斯建筑学共同设计,该庄园是在满足“光、空气和阳光”的前提下进行规划,并按照模块化设计原则进行工作,在现场进行组装。

格罗皮乌斯的一些想法可以在上世纪50年代和60年代英格兰南部63个地点建造的Span开发住房中看到。

该房屋由Eric Lyons设计,他在上世纪30年代在格罗皮乌斯和麦克斯韦·弗莱的办公室担任初级建筑师。他认为,像他的前雇主一样,建筑师应该为社会提供服务,并试图创建乡村风格的社区,将道路、房屋和游乐区整合到“整体环境”中。

肯特州New Ash Green的Span计划是一个拥有19个社区的完整村庄,每个社区拥有100到150座房屋,并使用以前庄园中的模块化形式进行设计。所有房屋都面向或背向公共绿地,Lyons及其团队还设计了该村庄的许多社区和公共设施。

New Ash Green, Kent, by Eric Lyons and Partners, 1966
Across town from the Bauhaus, the Törten housing estate was commissioned by the city of Dessau as an experimental solution for cost-effective mass housing. Designed by Walter Gropius with the Bauhaus's department of architecture, the estate was planned under the premise of "light, air and sun", and worked to a modular design principle that saw some components manufactured on site.
Some of Gropius' ideas are visible in the Span Development housing built in the 1950s and 1960s, at 63 sites across the south of England.
The housing was designed by Eric Lyons, who worked as a junior architect in the office of Gropius and Maxwell Fry in the 1930s. He believed, like his former employer, that architects should provide a service to society, and sought to create village-style communities that integrated roads, houses and play areas into "total environments".
The Span scheme for New Ash Green in Kent was proposed as a complete village with nineteen neighbourhoods, each featuring 100 to 150 homes and designed using elements of the modular forms seen in previous estates. All the houses faced or backed onto common green areas, with Lyons and his team also designing many of the village's community and public facilities.

Beyond Bauhaus——来自包豪斯的深远影响第5张图片

Image courtesy of Architectural Press Archive/RIBA Collections

Reliance控制工厂 / Team 4 / 1968年

包豪斯于1928年迁往德绍,部分原因是格罗皮乌斯希望加强学生与行业之间的联系。工业材料的采用对他的建筑实践也至关重要,尽管这在他到达英国后造成了问题。

格罗皮乌斯为Impington乡村学院制定的计划大大超出了预算,因为他指定的标准化组件尚未在英国生产。正如在赫特福德郡县议会的学校建设计划中所看到的那样,只有在战后时代才能实现标准化并按时实施。

工厂制造的结构部件在许多学校中已成为高科技风格的中心,这是由Team 4在上世纪60年代率先提出的,该事务所由Su Brumwell、Wendy Cheesman、Norman Foster和Richard Rogers创立。

该事务所的最后一个项目是Swindon的Reliance控制工厂,这是一种灵活的低成本项目,使用了标准化组件构建。福斯特后来在Greenford的IBM技术园,是按照类似的理念设计,这个方案通过一条道路连接各个区域,这一概念与格罗皮乌斯的包豪斯建筑很相似。

主要图片来源:Edmund Sumner

Reliance Controls Factory, Swindon, by Team 4, 1968
The Bauhaus' move to Dessau in 1928 resulted in part from Walter Gropius' desire to strengthen the links between his students and industry. The adoption of industrial materials was fundamental also to his architecture practice, although this created problems upon his arrival in the UK.
Gropius' plans for Impington Village College ran significantly over budget as the standardised components he specified were not yet in production in Britain. It was only in the post-war era that standardisation could be implemented to scale and delivered at pace, as seen in the school building programme of Hertfordshire County Council.
The visibility of the factory-made structural components in many of the schools was to become a central facet of the high-tech style, pioneered by Team 4 in the 1960s, a practice set up by Su Brumwell, Wendy Cheesman, Norman Foster and Richard Rogers.
The firm's last project was the Reliance Controls Factory in Swindon, a flexible, low-cost design built using available, standardised components. Foster's later IBM Technical Park in Greenford, Middlesex was built to a similar ethos, a split scheme linked by block on pilotis that traverses a service road, a plan remarkably similar to that of Gropius' Bauhaus building in Dessau.
Main image is by Edmund Sumner.

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