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哥伦比亚乡村住宅的可持续性和生产力
Sustainability and Productivity Meet in this Rural Colombian House

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

哥伦比亚建筑师协会(Colombian Society of Architects)面对波哥大南部乡村地区的住房单元的挑战,因此而发起了结合技术与空间的设计方案,这不仅仅能够开发生产力,同时还能够适用于可持续、高效与舒适标准。

项目评审团考虑到单元建筑的场地的不同特征以及地理特性,因此一等奖获得者是FP Arquitectura事务所的设计团队,二等奖获得者是Espacio Colectivo Arquitectos + Estación Espacial Arquitectos事务所。接下来来看一下获奖项目。

Faced with the challenge of designing housing units for rural areas south of the city of Bogotá, Sociedad Colombiana de Arquitectos (Colombian Society of Architects) called upon a participation of proposals with technical and spatial solutions, not only allowing the development of viable forms of productivity and growth, but also applying criteria of sustainability, efficiency and comfort.
Considering the adaptability of this architecture of the unity to the terrains situated in three varying geographies and characterised by an Andean landscape, the jury granted the first price to the team of FP Arquitectura and the second prize to Espacio Colectivo Arquitectos + Estación Espacial Arquitectos. Get to know the latter project in detail below, described by the authors.

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乡村住宅其实在如今并不能完全作为一种建筑策略的设计方式,除了学术界的研究以及其他的提升项目外,乡村的住宅单元一般都显得较为随意。

The outlook on rural housing as an architectural solution is nonexistent today, apart from private initiatives extracting ideas from the academies and other entities that promote the topic, the projects of housing built in rural territories are devoid of all dignity.

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贫困地区的住房缺乏热舒适性,并且电力系统也不稳定,村民还面临着卫生等问题。那么这就导致了这样一个结果,即当谈到乡村住宅时,人们立刻联想到贫困与缺乏机遇,这也导致了乡村人口向城市迁移,放弃了对于乡村的改造。

Housing in vulnerable areas, mass-produced materials without thermal solutions, inconsistent access to electricity and improvised sanitary solutions are some of the problems that the farmers face in their daily life. This leads to the consequence that when speaking of rurality we immediately have the idea of poverty and lack of opportunities, which has triggered the migration from the countryside to the city and the abandonment of productive agricultural and forestry activities essential for supporting families.

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在波哥大,大约75%的土地都位于乡村,同时这里毗邻Sumapaz。该地区的乡村土地面积约166000公顷,其中只有35000公顷适合进行农业活动,而剩下的则为保护土地,禁止进行农业开发。

Approximately 75% of the Bogotá territory is rural, bordering the Sumapaz moors, according to the characterisation of the capital′s soils by the District. This territory is equivalent to 166.000 rural hectares, and of these only 35.000 are suitable for agricultural activities. The rest were declared as protected, where the exploitation of the soil for agriculture is prohibited.

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那么这就为建筑师们提供了重新思考波哥大乡村住宅的契机,并且以弹性空间作为出发点,意思是,住宅是主体部分,并且适应以及克服上述的不利条件,自给自足,满足热舒适性,让村民们共同生活,另外,尊重当地的乡土建筑和空间传统,使其成为社区的一部分。

This scenario opens up the opportunity to rethink rural housing in Bogotá, with the idea of the resilient habitat as a starting point, meaning housing that as a principal adapts and overcomes the mentioned adversities producing its own food, heating its interior, growing together with its inhabitants, respecting the vernacular architectural and spatial traditions and permitting it to be part of the community.

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在概念阶段,建筑师们认为可以将热能的生成和建筑结构结合在一起,即热屋顶。

As a conceptual strategy, we propose the union between heat/energy generation and the habitable structure, a Thermal Roof.

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温室不仅仅是覆盖着透明材料的密封空间,同时在雨季还能成为灰空间庭院,这里能够进行生产,还能够御寒,另外甚至还能成为具有热舒适性的家庭聚会场所。

A greenhouse is not only a sealed spatial structure covered with transparent materials but also a covered courtyard for rainy seasons, a place to produce food and protect it from the cold, a family and community meeting space and a thermal device that heats a housing in a secure and efficient way.

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建筑师认为,热屋顶是可行的建筑体系,它能够有效地阻挡恶劣天气对建筑内部的影响,并且满足人们的生活所需。当提到建筑,人们一定能想到屋顶。除了以不同的材料进行建造,屋顶还代表着人对于尊严的渴望。屋顶是建筑的固有元素,许多传统空间都离不开屋顶。因此,在该项目中,屋顶是重中之重。

We also believe that a Roof is a habitable structure, a place, a spatial surface that protects from inclement weather, it is what the people demand in the streets, an essential element when we think of housing. Apart from being constructed with diverse materials, it represents an eagerness and a desire to live with dignity. A Roof is a primitive element inherent to our ancestral cultures; The Maloca, Ruca, Choza, are all spaces constructed principally as roof-like shelters. The Roof is the spatial cultural essence which we base this project on.

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因此,建筑师设计了热屋顶住宅,其内部在生产力与村民的生活之中构成某种联系。

设计方案以基本的支撑体系为基础,有着两个倾斜的表面,最终构成稳定的三角形空间。这座钢结构体量所围合的便是主要的使用空间,这也让屋顶更加坚固。

We designed a housing as a thermal cover, that in its interior gives shelter to a relationship between the productive and daily life of the farmer of today.
The proposal is based on the elemental principle of support that permits to construct a livable space covered by two inclined surfaces supported together forming a traction triangle. The steel structure composed of triangular frames forms the volume of the Greenhouse-Housing and solidifies the Roof.

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建筑师认为,如果要同时满足热舒适性、适应性强、具有社区导向性、生产力以及弹性等条件,那么首先要解决的便是建筑的质量问题。

We believe that if we respond to the group of variables with a thermal, adaptable, community-oriented, productive and resilient proposition, we will approach to alleviate the quantitative and, above all, the qualitative deficit of rural housing in Bogotá.

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建筑设计:Espacio Colectivo Arquitectos + Estación Espacial Arquitectos
地点:哥伦比亚 波哥大
主创建筑师:Carlos Hernán Betancourt, Sebastián Contreras, Aldo Marcelo hurtado
设计团队:Josman Rojas, Julian Londoño, Jessica Rojas, Edier Segura, Sofia Zuluaga, Emanuel Vivieros, Paulina Jimenez, est. Valentina garcia , est. David zuñiga, , est. Cristian Bandera. est. Yeison gamba
客户:Secretaría Distrital de Planeación SDP de la Alcaldía mayor de Bogotá D.C
项目发起方:Sociedad Colombiana de Arquitectos - Bogotá D.C. y Cundinamarca
面积:57 m2
项目时间:2019年
图片:Cortesía de Espacio Colectivo Arquitectos + Estación Espacial Arquitectos

Architect: Espacio Colectivo Arquitectos + Estación Espacial Arquitectos
Location: Bogotá, Colombia
Architects in Charge: Carlos Hernán Betancourt, Sebastián Contreras, Aldo Marcelo hurtado
Design Team: Josman Rojas, Julian Londoño, Jessica Rojas, Edier Segura, Sofia Zuluaga, Emanuel Vivieros, Paulina Jimenez, est. Valentina garcia , est. David zuñiga, , est. Cristian Bandera. est. Yeison gamba
Client: Secretaría Distrital de Planeación SDP de la Alcaldía mayor de Bogotá D.C
Promotor: Sociedad Colombiana de Arquitectos - Bogotá D.C. y Cundinamarca
Area: 57 m2
Project Year: 2019

        
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