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色彩心理学:九个项目窥探红色建筑的奥秘
The Psychology of Color: 9 Projects Making Us See Red

由专筑网丁康杰,王雪纯编译

红色是一种充满戏剧张力的颜色。当看到红色时,我们总是会产生一种强烈的本能反应,一种难以言状的恐慌感油然而生,这种恐慌是因为红色和我们存在一种亘古不变的联系——红色是血液的颜色,生命的颜色。当红色出现在我们的视野中时,我们不免将其与血液流失所带来的恐慌联系起来。因此,随着时间的推移,红色被用作警告标志、信号灯和紧急响应标志的颜色,哪怕在建筑中使用时,它通常也是为实现这些目标服务的。

建筑师们注意到了这种联系的重要性,因此在使用红色时也进行了一定的斟酌。正如下面这些项目所证明的:这种潜意识所赋予的属性使得红色在非紧急情况下也能成为被广泛应用的流行颜色。无论是使一个项目从周围环境中脱颖而出,还是使其成为环境的一部分,我们都不可能将这种颜色从其深刻的反射性含义中分离出来。以下这些项目涉及了各种建筑规模、各种设计程序和以及用色意图,但引人注目的效果总是殊途同归:如果你把一些事物涂上红色,人们就会被它们吸引。

Red is a dramatic color. Always eliciting a strong visceral response, we’ve evolved to become alarmed when we see it, since its oldest association is with the natural hue of blood when it’s outside the body. As such, red has been employed over time as the color of warning signs, stoplights and emergency response, and when used in architecture, it is often in the service of one of these goals.
The importance of this association is not lost on architects who use it discriminately. As evidenced in the projects below, it is exactly these subconscious attributes that make red a popular color to apply liberally in non-emergency settings. Whether helping a project stand out from its surroundings, or as a complement to them, it’s impossible to divorce this color from its deeply reflexive meaning. These projects exhibit a wide range of scale, program and intent, but the attention-grabbing effect is always the same: If you make something red, people will notice.

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血液中心/F A A B Architektura Adam Białobrzeski | Adam Figurski/波兰,拉齐布日市

献血中心大胆运用的红色不仅是为了展现与献血主题显而易见的联系,也是为了引起人们对于献血的关注。该设计所采用的陶瓷面板使用了各种各样的深红色,赋予了该建筑生动的形象。这些陶瓷面板围绕建筑的轮廓弯曲变形,使得建筑的外观宛如显微镜下的血细胞,非常引人注目。

Blood Center by F A A B Architektura Adam Białobrzeski | Adam Figurski, Raciborz, Poland
A bold application of red is used not only for obvious associations with this blood donation center, but also to draw attention to its cause. Vivid imagery is conjured up in the use of ceramic panels bathed in a variegated range of deep reds. These panels curve around the building’s corners in an attempt to evoke the biological nature of the substance handled here.

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沙发屋(Ijburg网球俱乐部)/MVRDV/荷兰

形态的可塑性可能是这个网球俱乐部最引人注目的原因,但是明亮的,单一色调的红色应用强化了外观效果。这座与众不同的建筑同时与球场融为一体,并且从景观中突显出来,作为其强大公共功能的一种宣告:它对任何人、每个人开放,无论其由哪个俱乐部管理,在一年四季的任何时候都是对外开放的。

The Couch by MVRDV, IJburg, Netherlands
Formal plasticity may be the most noticeable element for this tennis clubhouse, but the bright, single-tone application of red on its exterior enhances this effect. Simultaneously blending in with the courts and popping out from the landscape, this unusual structure serves as an announcement for its ambitious public function: it is open to anyone and everyone, regardless of club affiliation, at any time, year-round.

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蛇形画廊/让·努维尔工作室/英国伦敦

一个临时的室外画廊被安置在这个半透明的红色面板下,当夏天的阳光倾洒在红色面板上时,它过滤了一些紫外线。实心的大块红色面板被安置于距离地面更近的地方,红色的选择是为了使得建筑和周围公园里郁郁葱葱的绿色形成对比和互补。

Serpentine Gallery by Ateliers Jean Nouvel, London, United Kingdom
A temporary, outdoor gallery was housed under this collection of translucent red panels, filtering the summer sun as it shone through from above. Solid expanses of red were placed closer to the ground, their color picked for its contrasting and complementary qualities relative to the lush green of the surrounding park.

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红房子/Jarmund/Vigsnæs Architects_ JVA/挪威,奥斯陆

客户的要求便在这栋房子中使用红色,而红色与北方气候的寒冷色调截然相反。建筑场地原本是一座花园,醒目颜色吸引了人们的注意力,这个严格垂直的结构矗立在树木繁茂的环境中,突出了其人工建造的特性。

The Red House by Jarmund/Vigsnæs Architects_ JVA, Oslo, Norway
A client’s choice mandated the red used on this house, which is thematically opposite to the site’s predominantly cold, northern climate. Placed on a former garden, the color draws attention to this strictly orthogonal structure set within heavily wooded surroundings, highlighting its artificial qualities.

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众行顶/众建筑/英国,英格兰,兰开夏郡

移动的、可操控的华盖结构通过红色来引人注目,这些顶篷旨在为一些突然出现的群体活动提供空间的。例如,为了倡导人们拒绝以汽车为主导的生活方式,设计者选择红色来吸引市民走到户外公共空间,希望获得人们的注意与支持,同时也强调了在城市中自发面对面交流的重要性。

People’s Canopy by People’s Architecture Office, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom

A mobile, deployable architecture is highlighted in red for the use of these canopies, which function as pop-up event spaces. Intended to combat a car-oriented lifestyle by drawing citizens to outdoor public spaces, this choice of color demands an awareness of the cause being supported, and works to underscore the importance of spontaneous face-to-face interactions in an urban context.

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Jean-Claude Carriere剧院/A+Architecture/法国,蒙彼利埃

设计师通过颜色的选择,使用独特的衔接材料,给这家剧院营造一种鼓舞人心的轻盈之感。红色作为主题色贯穿整个建筑的内外,甚至影响了内外陈设的设计,增强了剧院的公共、非表演空间的娱乐艺术气息。

Jean-Claude Carrière Theatre by A+Architecture, Montpellier, France
Color choice, combined with a unique material articulation, was employed to impart a sense of inspiring lightness on this theater’s guests. A red motif is carried throughout the building on both the exterior and interior, and even affected the design of furnishings, endowing the theater’s more public, non-performance spaces with an entertaining quality.

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红墙创意园/3GATTI/中国,上海

由于靠近繁忙的高速公路路段,这个多功能综合中心的设计师建造了一堵长而巨大的墙面,作为建筑使用者和道路之间的空间、视觉和听觉的隔离物。事实上,它被涂成鲜红色不仅反映了建筑的表现力,也潜在地激发了路过的司机的警觉意识。

Red Wall by 3GATTI, Shanghai, China
With a wide exposure facing directly onto a busy highway, the designers of this multi-purpose center employed a long, massive wall to act as a spatial, visual and auditory separation between building occupants and the road. The fact that it’s colored bright red not only reflects the ostentatious goals of the architects, but also unintentionally inspires alertness in drivers passing by.

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Amphithéatre Trois-Rivières/PAUL LAURENDEAU工作室/加拿大

传统舞台幕布的深色调启发了设计师对于这个室外露天剧场屋顶的红色金属板的选择。悬于在表演和观众的上方,令人不容忽视的红色面板充满了戏剧张力,与舞台上的表演形成了一种奇妙的平衡感和呼应感。

Amphithéatre Trois-Rivières by ATELIER PAUL LAURENDEAU, Trois-Rivières, Canada
The deep coloring of traditional stage curtains inspired the choice of red metal panels for the roof of this outdoor amphitheater. Hoisted above both the performance and the audience, this dramatically hued shelter, impossible to miss, provides a balancing counterpoint to the action happening on stage.

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秦皇岛红丝带公园/Turenscape Landscape Architects/中国,秦皇岛

这个1640英尺(约500米)长的结构使用了线性的扩展设计,沿着蜿蜒的道路确定了公园的中心。整条“红丝带”都带有强烈的红色,以确保游客可以清楚地看到它。这种微妙而严谨的设计架构一方面是对于自然环境的补充,另一方面也为其定义的公共资产增加了宝贵的可读性。

Qinhuangdao Red Ribbon Park by Turenscape Landscape Architects, Qinhuangdao, China
A linear expanse of programming is accommodated in this 1,640-foot-long structure, defining the heart of a park along its winding path. Possessing a strong red color throughout ensures that it will be clearly discernible by park-goers. This subtle yet strict image of organization complements its natural surroundings and adds valuable legibility to the public asset it defines.

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