网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第1张图片

Malecaze住宅的主体楼层在车库上方,依据延绵的山形地势建造/The house’s main level, above the garage, conforms to the rolling hills it sits upon

Maison Malecaze by RCR Arquitectes

由专筑网小满,李韧编译

Malecaze住宅与常见的住宅案例有所不同,景致得天独厚。如果要问为什么Malecaze教授想在建筑稀疏散落的图卢兹市郊建一处朴素的宅子的话,正是因为这里能一览加龙河流域全景,还能远眺比利牛斯山脉。但他并不满意基地里上世纪七十年代建造的那栋小房子,其中的空间狭小且封闭,难以满足生活需求,还将基地坐拥的自然景色拒之门外。他委托的建筑师们也同意他的观点,在2017年,RCR Arquitectes事务所获得普利茨克奖之前,Malecaze教授一次西班牙旅行时偶然发现了他们的作品。“河谷的景色太引人入胜了,我们想以此为出发点做设计。”RCR建筑事务所加泰罗尼亚籍建筑师Carme Pigem如是说。

It was, as is not infrequent in these cases, all about the view. For if Professor Malecaze had acquired a modest property in this sparsely built suburb of Toulouse, it was precisely because of the stunning panorama it offered across the valley of the Garonne River toward the Pyrenees on the far horizon. But he wasn’t so keen on the small 1970s house that came with the lot, which he found not only too poky for his needs but also too closed with respect to the natural splendors the site enjoyed. And his chosen architects—discovered by chance on a trip to Spain, long before their 2017 Pritzker Prize win—agreed. “The view across the valley is so powerful that we wanted to do a house based around it,” says Carme Pigem, the C in Catalonia-based RCR Arquitectes.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第2张图片

保存下来的外墙和窗户不使用条纹肌理的混凝土,取而代之的是松散排布的垂直金属杆件/The concrete striations give way to loosely spaced vertical metal rods over existing walls and windows.

Malecaze教授的要求非常明确,除了观景视野至上以外,房子要足够大,他三个成年的孩子回家时能有地方住,另外,所有空间都布在一层,毕竟他和妻子都不再年轻,接着,考虑到这里夏季炎热,他还想要一座泳池,而这些要求这就给建筑师们留了难题,由于当地规范的限制,如果要同时满足上述要求便有些困难。Malecaze教授最基本的诉求是一栋新房子,但拆毁既有建筑是为规范所禁止的行为,为了防止在延绵青山上过度开发,规范中明确写到,一栋建筑一经拆除,所在基地即永远不可重新建设。另外,基地上任何形式的扩建工程的面积百分比也有严格要求,也就是说,如果按照Malecaze教授的要求,将所有空间都布局在一层,如果再设一个泳池,那么面积就超了。基地里还有一个陡坡,但规范不允许进行大型筑堤工程。这些限制条件像磨刀石一般,让RCR最终打磨出了Malecaze住宅。

Malecaze’s requirements were clear: besides championing that view, he wanted a house big enough to accommodate his three grown children when they came to stay; he wanted everything on one level, since he and his wife weren’t getting any younger; and, given the warm summers in the region, he wanted a pool. Which left RCR with a conundrum, since the local planning regulations made combining all of that rather complicated. What Malecaze was essentially asking for was a new house, but demolition of the old one was prohibited: to prevent overdevelopment on these rolling green hills, the regulations specified that, once a building was torn down, its site became inconstructible and could never be built upon again. Moreover, the percentage of the plot that could be covered by any extension was restricted, which meant— given that Malecaze wanted everything on the same level—there would be no room for a pool. Then there was the site’s steep slope, and the fact that major embankment work was not allowed. It was from these constraints—essential grist to the artist’s mill—that RCR’s Maison Malecaze was born.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第3张图片

Malecaze住宅共有两个庭院,其中一个栽有一棵樱桃树/One of the two courtyards is planted with a cherry tree.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第4张图片

壁炉在大起居室中限定出幽静的小角落/A fireplace defines a small nook off the large living area.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第5张图片

使用者从主要起居室会看到露台上部的泳池/Views from that main living space are compressed by the swimming pool’s underside above the terrace.


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第6张图片


规则虽不可破,但能善用。最终,老房子的两堵墙被保留了下来,不过已被改造得焕然一新。出于现实性和空间诗学的考虑,业主诉求也有一些让步,与其说空间被严格地排布在同一平面上,“扩建部分”大约低3英尺(0.9米),减少挖方填方的工程量,并为建筑师进行空间设计留下余地。至于泳池,仅剩的放置空间就是屋顶。“还好,起码限制条站在我们这边。”Pigem挖苦说,“因为我们想让基地尽可能保持原样。”屋顶泳池决定了建筑结构,两个巨型书立式的混凝土体块支撑游泳池下的横梁,其中一个体块中涵括更衣室和洗衣房,另一个布置有能下到地下室车库和上到屋顶的楼梯。两个体块位于全新的开放式起居空间的两侧,这一做法非常超前。

Rules are there if not to be broken, at least to be bent, and in the end just two walls of the old house were retained (altered beyond recognition, no less). The client’s wishes were also bent in the interests of practicalities and spatial poetics, so, rather than being on exactly the same level, the “extension” is about 3 feet lower, reducing embankment work and allowing a Raumplan. As for the swimming pool, the only place left to put it was on the roof. “But it’s good when the constraints are on your side,” says Pigem wryly, “since we wanted to leave the site as untouched as possible.” The rooftop pool determined the structure: two massive concrete bookends—one containing the dressing room and laundry, the other the stairways down to the basement garage and up to the rooftop—that carry the beams supporting the pool. The bookends also flank the fluid new living spaces—but this is rather jumping the gun.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第7张图片

主入口在大型顶棚之下/The main entrance is beneath a large hood.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第8张图片


来到Malecaze住宅,首先印入眼帘的是封闭堡垒似的立面,米色的混凝土砌筑出条状纹理。一条同样发白的小径通向主入口,入口顶棚压得很低,保留外墙的立面涂上涂料,条纹肌理通过竖向金属杆件的形式来表现。步入顶棚下的灰空间,面前耸立着一扇非常高的钢制大门。当你在其中游走时,空间体验会随着空间序列收放而变化。走进大门,里面是和门等高、顶部采光的入口走廊,走廊左侧通向三间客卧,尽头是长辈的生活区域。从走廊右侧下几级台阶,使用者就来到了主要的生活起居空间,起居室通风宽敞,同时空间急剧收缩,因为游泳池大幅缩短了整个外立面上纹理的长度,窗框也起到了框景的效果,这比摄影镜头更具纵深性和全景感。泳池的宽度在起居室外形成露台,防止雨水溅到外开窗上。

Arriving at the house, you are confronted by a blind fortress of a facade, in pale striated concrete, with an equally pale path leading up to the low hood of the entrance canopy. (In other parts of the facade—over the existing exterior walls and new glazed areas—the striations take the form of vertical metal rods.) Once inside the hood’s somber gloom, you’re suddenly faced with an enormously tall steel door, the first in a series of compressions and dilations that modulate your experience as you move around the house. The door opens into an equally tall entrance corridor, lit from above, off which one can access the three guest bedrooms to the left (located within the perimeter of the old house), the parents’ quarters at the end, and the main living area down steps to the right. Taking the latter, you arrive in a long, airy, spacious volume where you are immediately met by another violent compression, since the swimming pool (although one doesn’t realize that yet) dramatically narrows the band of glazing running along the entire facade, clenching one’s first experience of the famous view into a frame even more stretched and panoramic than Cinemascope. (The pool’s width also creates a protected terrace, sufficiently deep to prevent rain’s reaching the fenestration.)

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第9张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第10张图片

混凝土在这里有多样化的运用方式,可以是主浴室的盥洗池,也可以是厨房悬挑的台面,还可以是将主卧与走廊空间区分开的台阶踏步/Concrete is variously utilized within the house to form washbasins in the master bath, to embed the cantilevering counters in the kitchen, and to alternate the treads of the steps that separate the master suite from the spinal corridor.

更戏剧化的空间位于后侧,一侧是现代主义壁炉,另一侧是主卧壁龛,中间放开的区域是厨房。三个空间都对“房屋脊柱”般的走廊开放,所以形成了“统一但高度不同的空间,保证了视觉上的整体性和空间上的多元化”,Pigem这样解释道。在此基础上,RCR还增加了约束条件,即在一个几乎对称的矩形平面内解决Malecaze住宅全部的居住需求。“我们想通过一定的比例,将新旧房屋结合在一起。”Pigem解释说。所以全新的主卫在后方完善了矩形平面,两个庭院打破了矩形外缘,小小的办公空间外的庭院中种有一棵樱桃树,另一个庭院中设有一个铺满鹅卵石的倒影池,周围环绕着客房的玻璃立面。

More dramatic compression is just behind us, in the form of a modernist inglenook at one end and the master-bedroom alcove at the other, while between them is another dilation—the kitchen. All three open onto the spinal corridor, thus forming “a single but highly differentiated space, allowing both a unitary vision and rich spatial variety,” as Pigem explains. Furthermore, RCR set itself the added constraint of inscribing all the Maison Malecaze’s accommodation within one strict rectangle in a more or less symmetrical plan. “We wanted to integrate the old house into a new ensemble using measured proportions,” Pigem explains. Thus the new master bathroom completes the rectangle at the back, with two courtyards breaking up the perimeter, one planted with a cherry tree onto which looks a small office space (part of the master suite), while the other contains a pebble-filled reflecting pool surrounded by the fully glazed inner facades of the guest bedrooms.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第11张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第12张图片


为了表达逻辑性,Malecaze住宅充满着无尽的微妙细节,使用者的视线可以从主卫的浴缸穿过整座建筑,看到室外的景观,另外,两间客卧能通过滑动墙体合二为一,变成一间健身房,厨房的桌子和抽屉通过悬挑的钢构件来实现,主卧室中的床也是如此,“我们不喜欢家具的腿。”Pigem说,“我们希望所有东西很轻盈。”交替的台阶踏面尽可能将长辈使用区域和走廊划分开来,房屋米色的混凝土像语言一样,在语汇上富于变化,其中有的能够体现原材料质感,有的粗糙,有的光滑,甚至还有塑性浴缸等等。“在建筑里,我们避免使用很多种不同的材料。”皮格姆说,“我们更倾向于将一两种材料的内在丰富性展现出来。”

As well as a bravura response to logistics, the Maison Malecaze is a dwelling of endless subtleties: you can look from the master bathroom washbasin through the rest of the house out to the famous view; two of the guest bedrooms can be combined as a gym thanks to a sliding wall; the kitchen table and drawers are realized in levitating cantilevered steel, as is the master bed (“We don’t like furniture legs,” says Pigem. “We want everything to appear light”); alternating tread steps separate as much as they join the parents’ quarters and the spinal corridor; and the house’s cream-colored concrete is used as a language, grammatically inflected in different ways—brut de décoffrage, bush-hammered rough, bush-hammered polished, molded to form baths, washbasins, and so on. “In our architecture, we avoid using lots of different materials,” clarifies Pigem. “We prefer to bring out the intrinsic richness of just one or two.”

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第13张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第14张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第15张图片

峡谷般的楼梯通向屋顶泳池,使用者来到屋顶可一览加龙河流域的景致/A canyon-like staircase leads to the rooftop pool and its views over the valley of the Garonne River.

混凝土的选色是业主Malecaze的唯一参与设计意见,建筑师们原先选择了深灰色,而建筑的其他部分都由建筑师自行表达。其中有一个无法表达的构思就是那个通向屋顶的楼梯,此举让景观再次占据了设计的主导地位。建筑师们不纠结于库哈斯艾瓦别墅的矛盾点,在其中,建筑师不想让艾菲尔铁塔成为屋顶泳池的全部焦点,在这里,来到屋顶的路线是空间收放序列的最终篇章,当使用者从狭窄黑暗峡谷般的楼梯走上天空下的室外露台之后,走廊会引导向一湾蓝色水池,让使用者完全融入在比利牛斯山脉与无垠时空里。

The color of the concrete was the one point where Malecaze put his foot down (the architects wanted it dark gray), otherwise giving RCR entirely free rein to interpret his “unspoken wishes.” One such unexpressed desire is the dramatic stairway to the rooftop, where that view takes over again. While stopping short of the Villa dall’Ava’s Koolhaasian contrariness (Rem famously didn’t want it to be all about the rooftop-swimming-pool view of the Eiffel Tower), the route up top here is the final sequence of compression and dilation, as you move from a narrow dark canyon of a staircase to a platform in the sky, the spinal corridor now a parapet pushing you forward toward a thin ribbon of blue, a last deliquescent strip of sensuality between you, the Pyrenees, and infinity.

充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第16张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第17张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第18张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第19张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第20张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第21张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第22张图片


充满设计感的乡间小屋丨法国Malecaze住宅第23张图片


项目信息
建筑设计:RCR Arquitectes — Rafael Aranda, Carme Pigem, Ramon Vilalta, partners; A. Moura, I. García, A. Saez, S. Figueras, D. Breathnack, K. Fujii, project team
顾问:Blázquez-Guanter (structure)
总承包商:àrids Vilanna
图片:Pep Sau, Hisao Suzuki, RCR Arquitectes

Credits
Architect: RCR Arquitectes — Rafael Aranda, Carme Pigem, Ramon Vilalta, partners; A. Moura, I. García, A. Saez, S. Figueras, D. Breathnack, K. Fujii, project team
Consultant: Blázquez-Guanter (structure)
General contractor: àrids Vilanna
Photo: Pep Sau, Hisao Suzuki, RCR Arquitectes

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (10573 articles)


居住建筑 (3225 articles)


住宅 (2652 articles)


法国 (569 articles)


图卢兹 (6 articles)


RCR Arquitectes (4 articles)


混凝土 (2487 articles)


玻璃 (1764 articles)


钢材 (951 articles)