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如今大热的无人机该怎么运用在建筑摄影中?第1张图片


无人机摄影指南
A Guide to Drone Photography/Cinematography for Architecture

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

无人机摄影是航拍和电影拍摄领域的一大进步,在21世纪初期,无人机开始对电影制作领域产生巨大影响,但航空和拍摄技术的极大进步也大大提升了每个行业在数字信息领域对于航拍的需求。

在建筑业中,许多施工场地已经开始应用无人机,从而获得鸟瞰实景图,这样能够从上帝视角捕捉到建筑特殊的一面,亦或是记录建筑的建造过程。但是,在建筑摄影和电影制作方面,这一技术只是刚刚开始而已。

那么,请跟着这篇指南,一起来学习无人机的摄影与电影制作吧。

Drone photography has been one of the biggest advancements in aerial photography and cinematography. Drones began making a huge impact on filmmaking in the early 2000s, but vast advancements in aerial and camera technology have dramatically increased the use of and demand for aerial footage in nearly every industry focused on digital content.
The construction industry has begun implementing drones on construction sites as a way to get a birdseye view of a project, capture the finished building from a unique perspective and even be used in the actual construction of the building itself. But when it comes to architectural photography and cinematography, we are just beginning to scratch the surface.
Read on for ArchDaily's Guide to Drone Photography/Cinematography.


首先,你得有一台打开方式正确的无人机



Gartner公司的调查数据显示,无人机在全球范围的的销量在2016年增长了60%,大约为2200万,其盈利超过了45亿美元。Dà-Jiāng Innovations (DJI)公司在这方面是行业领先者,在2016年,其销售总数占500至1000美元市场份额的36%,占1000至2000美元市场份额的66%,而在2000至4000美元的市场中,占有67%。

建筑师兼Architect + Entrepreneur系列丛书的作者Eric Reinholdt在2017年发布了一段视频,其中详细介绍了为建筑师和设计师所使用的最佳无人机的研究成果。在视频中,他认为DJI Mavic Pro无人机最适合使用。在一段7公里的飞行时间中,这台机器可以携带4K 12 MP相机和三轴万向节,其形态也十分便携,甚至可以折叠后放入背包。另外,其售价为1398美元,其中还包括有电池等各项辅助设施,因此,这是一项非常划算的商业投资。

Finding the Right Drone
Globally, drone sales grew an estimated 60% in 2016 to over 2.2 million, with revenue growth eclipsing $4.5 billion, according to research firm Gartner. Dà-Jiāng Innovations (DJI) has emerged as the industry leader, representing 36% of the $500-$1,000 market in 2016, 66% of the $1,000-$2,000 market and 67% of the $2,000-$4,000 market.
Architect and author of the Architect + Entrepreneur book series Eric Reinholdt released a video in 2017 detailing the results of his research into the best drone for architects and designers. At the time of his video, he concluded that the DJI Mavic Pro was the winner. With a 7 km flight time, 4K 12 MP camera and 3-axis gimbal, the Mavic Pro is also small enough to fit into a small backpack after the foldable wings are tucked back into the body of the drone. Also coming in at a (current) price of $1,398 for the Fly More Combo (which includes an extra battery pack, case, DJI remote, extra blades, and much more) it can be seen as an affordable business investment.

如今大热的无人机该怎么运用在建筑摄影中?第2张图片

DJI Mavic Pro. Image© Wikimedia user Leigh Miller licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

在Reinholdt的视频发布之后,DJI公司又发布了Mavic Air,这是一款更高效的无人机,与Mavic Pro有着相同的规格,但是其价格更加便宜一些,单机为799美元,套装为999美元。Mavic Air是专业级别飞行器,也同样便携,另外还结合有三轴万向节和4K相机,Mavic Air还增加了32 MP 360相机,从而拥有360°全景镜头功能。

DJI公司出品各种价格的无人机,其产品对于研究项目,会有很大的帮助。

But since Reinholdt's video, DJI has released the Mavic Air. A more compact drone with the same specs as the Mavic Pro at an even more affordable price ($799, or $999 for the Fly More Combo), the Mavic Air is a professional-grade aircraft that fits in your pocket. Also sporting a 3-axis gimbal and 4K camera, the Mavic Air adds the capability to capture 360-panoramic footage with its 32 MP 360 camera.
DJI has a wide variety of drones across a range of prices, and as with most purchases of this price range, it is important to do your research.

如今大热的无人机该怎么运用在建筑摄影中?第3张图片

DJI Mavic Air

负责任地使用它

在你的首次飞行之前,首先你得了解该地区对于飞行器的相关规范,这看起来有些夸张,但因为联邦航空管理局(FAA)对于此已经定制了安全规则,先了解它们,你才能更加快速安全地飞行,同时也能确保当地管理人员不会没收你的飞行器。在这篇文章中,你也可以了解一下了解有关开始使用新无人机的合法性的更多信息。

摄影

航拍大概是建筑摄影中无人机大展宏图之地,例如建筑场地的实景照片,在建筑设计过程中非常重要,因为设计者可以因此而了解场地的基本概况。但是同样地,在使用无人机拍摄时,同样有一些要点需要了解。

首先是飞行的时间和地点。在市区进行无人机的飞行相较于在城郊农村会有危险得多,而有时候夜晚的飞行能够捕捉到美丽的夜景,但是你应该也能理解,如果夜晚的视线有些模糊,那么这对使用无人机来说也非常危险。虽然大多数的无人机自带头灯和尾灯,但这仍然并不能消除其危险性。

在大多数高端无人机设备中,都配备有稳定的万向节,三轴万向节能够提供更稳定的支撑,因为它可以稳定三轴(偏航,俯仰和滚转),而两轴万向节的稳定性则稍微弱一些,只能稳定俯仰和滚转。这么说你也许无法理解其中的区别,那么这就类似相机的三脚架,一架三脚架能够防止相机抖动,从而记录下更加清晰的画面,那么三轴万向节的作用也是如此。

虽然是无人机拍摄,但是画面的透视也非常重要。其拍摄视角很容易被带偏,因此你可以通过用手持相机的方式来寻找角度,无人机自身只是一台工具有趣的工具的而已。

Use Responsibly
Before you get started with your initial flight, it is also important to research your local jurisdiction's rules and regulations on unmanned aircraft. It may seem a bit over-the-top, but the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has put in place safety guidelines to help you get flying as quickly as possible, and ensure that your drone isn't confiscated after its first flight. You can reference this article for more information on the legalities of getting started with your new drone.

Photography
Aerial photography is definitely the most utilized aspect of drone use in architecture. Site photos are useful in predesign, construction photos can help keep an eye on the process and final images capture the essence of the design at a different level (literally). Here are a few things to keep in mind when using your drone for aerial photography in architecture.
When and where you are flying matters. Flying a drone in a dense urban area is a lot more dangerous than on a rural mountainside. Flying at night versus during the day is a great way to get those great nighttime cityscape shots, but as you might imagine, it is a bit tricky to fly a drone when you can't really see it. Most drones do have head and tail lights to aid in night flight, but relying on seeing the lights from over a mile away maybe isn't the best idea.
Most high-end drones come with some sort of gimbal technology for stabilization. A 3-axis gimbal will provide you more stabilization as it stabilizes over three axis (yaw, pitch and roll), while a 2-axis gimbal only stabilizes the pitch and roll. You might not think this makes much of a difference in photography, but compare it to taking a picture freehand versus using a tripod. Obviously, the tripod will eliminate camera shake and help you get a cleaner, crisper image. The same goes for a 3-axis gimbal.
Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind when it comes to drone photography is perspective. It's easy to get carried away when operating a drone, but you must not forget to analyze your drone shot just as you would with a handheld camera. A drone is simply another tool to utilize in the creative process. It just happens to also be one of the most fun.

如今大热的无人机该怎么运用在建筑摄影中?第4张图片


电影拍摄

航拍角度的电影是无人机使用中经常被忽视的一个方面,但它其实有着重要的作用。航拍电影同样也具有诸多挑战,因为一张好照片,亦或是一段好视频其实很难直接来源于相机。即使你通过无人机拍摄了高分辨率的图像,但是同样也需要通过精细的后期制作来完成整体工作。而在视频中,后期工作与建筑界的工作流并不相同,但其中仍然饱含诸多潜力。

无人机为建筑的进一步体验提供了契机,因此其拍摄的视频还能够在不同层面上促进设计师的设计能力。例如Flyovers模式可以作为建筑的广阔背景视角,Flyarounds模式则可以在人们肉眼所无法企及的层面检查一些画面细部,而Flythroughs模式则通过在不同空间之间的切换来制作完整的空间效果。

有了适用的无人机、充分的飞行经验和相应的创造能力,你就可以开始尝试航拍,从而提升你的设计效率。YouTuber Casey Neistat的视频中介绍了许多案例,你可以从中学习到如何通过无人机拍摄独特的画面视角。

持续学习/获取灵感

操作无人机并非易事,如果想通过无人机来拍摄高质量的作品,那么同样需要时间和精力。这就如同BIM技术一样,世界上有大量的资源供你学习和研究,例如YouTube等视频网站,你可以从中了解到各种操作技巧。

除了视频教学,这里还有一些创作人员,他们的作品也许会给你带来灵感,他们分别是:Casey Neistat、Peter McKinnon、Eric Reinholdt、Chris Hau、Matti Haapoja、Droneworks Studios。

Cinematography
The cinematic component of aerial photography is an often neglected aspect of drone usage that has the potential to make a major impact. Aerial cinematography is also perhaps one of the more daunting aspects of using a drone. In part because (much like a photo) a video very rarely ever comes out perfect directly from the camera. Even with the incredibly high-resolution images you can get from a quality drone, there is still a bit of post-production work needed to make sure the information shown looks the way it needs to. With video, that post-production workflow is not one that is known to most in the architecture industry. But therein lies the potential.
Drones offer the opportunity to experience buildings in a way that isn't humanly possible without them. Video also has the power to enhance the experience of the design at multiple scales. Vast flyovers provide an expansive view of a building in its context. Flyarounds can provide an intimate examination of details at levels out of reach at a human scale. Flythroughs can provide a complete experience through a building by navigating between spaces.
With the correct drone, a sufficient amount of flight experience and a bit of creativity, You can begin experimenting with aerial cinematography to help elevate your design work. Check out this video from YouTuber Casey Neistat to see a great example of how to use a drone to capture spatial experiences from a unique perspective.

Keep Learning / Get Inspired
It should come as no shock that operating a drone is not easy. In order to get outstanding, high-quality content out of your drone, it will require time and effort on your part. But just like with any BIM software, there is an abundance of resources out there to help you get started with flight technique, post-production and inspiration. YouTube is perhaps the best place to look, as it is the world's second largest search engine (and it is owned by the first largest, Google) and is the world's go-to for "how to's".
Apart from tutorials and instructional videos, here are a few creators that often utilize drones in their content that will surely provide you with a plethora of inspiration: Casey Neistat, Peter McKinnon, Eric Reinholdt, Chris Hau, Matti Haapoja, Droneworks Studios.

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