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由专筑网雷君,vigo,卢荣姝编译

在建筑业中,由于单板小屋的轰动,木材开始流行“21世纪之风”。大多数建筑都是利用研磨的木材,它表现出的木材的质感,而不是原始的粗造感,这种木材和原木一样坚固。后者在Mahlum设计的muckleshoot印第安人部落长屋里发挥重要作用;雪松柱熠熠生辉地在支撑着上方的花旗松原木。木材随处可见,从房间内部的活动中吸收着温暖和气味。我们问了Mahlum几个有关第二项目的问题。

Wood in architecture is undergoing a 21st-century resurgence of sorts, finding applications from the thinnest of veneers to structural frames for mid-rise buildings. Most architectural applications utilize milled wood, which exhibits the grain and character of wood but does not convey the origins of wood as strongly as peeled logs. The latter can be found to great effect in Mahlum's design of a longhouse for the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe; Cedar columns flare at their base as they prop up the Douglas fir logs overhead. Wood prevails throughout, absorbing the warmth and smells from the rituals taking place inside. We asked Mahlum a few questions about their second project for the Muckleshoots.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第1张图片
Main ceremony room/主仪式厅。© Ben Benschneider

你们是在什么情况下接受这个委托的?

经过周详的概念策划和预算的计算之后,基于之前即与Muckleshoot Tribe的历史学家在K-12学校的建设中有过合作,Mahlum就被邀请进入了面试环节。这位历史学家是Seowyn教会的一员,他们祈求能为自己的信仰建立一个基地。这个教会的民众为之努力了十数年。

What were the circumstances of receiving the commission for this project?
After developing conceptual plans and a budget, Mahlum was invited to interview for the project based upon a prior working relationship with the Muckleshoot Tribe’s historian on a K-12 school. The historian is a member of the Seowyn congregation who wanted to create a home for their faith. The congregation within the tribe had worked toward achieving this project for over a decade.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第2张图片
Seating risers in main ceremony room/主仪式厅中的阶梯座椅。© Ben Benschneider

请大致的描绘一下这个项目。

Muckleshoots是来自太平洋西北部山脉的萨利希族人民落脚的地方,仍然依赖于同一水域、山区、草原和河流。他们的祖先的旧村落在绿河与白河两岸修建,在抵达埃利奥特湾前曾汇流为Duwamish。这房子是专门为熏制信仰的实践而设计的,遵循一个传统的唯心论,也被称为seowyn。

位于Muckleshoot草原上的第一长屋已年过百岁,其建筑与周边的现代农业背景融为一体。具有明显的内敛的特征,是一个用于仪式的私产,并不张扬。相反,它让来访者感受到内部的温馨。

Please provide an overview of the project.
The Muckleshoots are descended from the Salish peoples of the Pacific Northwest and remain tied to the same waters, mountains, prairie and rivers. The historic villages of their ancestors were built along the banks of the Green and White Rivers, which once combined as the Duwamish before reaching Elliott Bay. This longhouse is dedicated to the practice of the Smokehouse faith, a traditional spiritualism also known as Seowyn.
The first longhouse on the Muckleshoot prairie in over a hundred years, the building blends with its modern agrarian context. Distinctly introspective in character, it is a private place for ceremony that does not proclaim itself. Rather, it reveals itself as the visitor is welcomed into the warmth of the interior.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第3张图片
Detail of a cedar column/雪松木柱细节。© Ben Benschneider

仪式房体现了木、土和火元素。在此举行的仪式是神圣而私密的。当舞者穿梭在大型木火炉间时,泥土地板使他们与土地契合在一起。木炉中的火焰驱除了寒冷。巨大的雪松柱支撑着上方的杉木梁和木屋顶构架。传统的鼓和吟唱在空间中光滑的木面上回荡。信仰之外鲜有人能有幸目睹这种仪式,而该仪式禁止摄影。

主仪式房能接待高达500名来自该地区各部落的熏蒸信仰追随者,当地房子更贴心的为Muckleshoot部落的成员开展服务。

The Ceremony Room is wood, earth, and fire. The rituals held in the Ceremony Room are sacred and very private. The dirt floors connect dancers to the earth as they weave between large wood stoves. Fires in the stoves keep out the cold. Massive cedar columns hold fir logs and timber roof framing aloft. Traditional drums and songs resonate through the space off the smooth wood surfaces. Few people from outside the faith are privileged to witness the events, and photographs of the congregants are not permitted.
Where the main Ceremony Room hosts up to 500 Smokehouse followers from Tribes throughout the region, the Local Room houses more intimate services for the members from the Muckleshoot Tribe.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第4张图片
Dining hall/餐厅。© Ben Benschneider

主要概念和灵感来自哪里?

去皮的原木建筑和长而杂乱的屋顶都遵循虔诚的南部山脉民族传统长屋的结构。雪松被认为是他们祖先赐予的礼物,因为有无数的用途。雪松如列站在仪式室的哨兵,它们宁静庄严的气质将活动与场地联系在一起。雪松木板跨列保护人们免受寒风吹袭。花旗松用于屋顶结构的原木、椽和装饰。

餐厅形成了整个建筑的核心。有了设备齐全的厨房和室外烹饪区,主人可以同时招待250位客人。在仪式房的木制结构体现了这些空间的原始特性,餐厅将深红色的胶合板、细木板和编织的吊灯,和有着数十年生长意义的木头连在一起。

What are the main ideas and inspirations influencing the design of the building?
The peeled log construction and long, gabled roof is reverent to the traditional longhouse structures of the Southern Salish peoples. Cedar is considered a gift to their ancestors because of the innumerable uses they found for it. Cedar columns stand sentinel in the ceremony rooms, their quiet strength connecting the congregants to this heritage. Cedar planks span between the columns sheltering the occupants from the chill winds outside. Doug fir was harvested for the logs, rafters and decking of the roof structure.
The dining hall forms the heart of the building. With the fully appointed kitchen and outdoor cooking area, the hosts can serve 250 guests at a time. Where the log structure in the ceremony rooms embodies the raw character of those spaces, the dining hall juxtaposes deep red tinted plywood, slender wood slats, and woven pendant lights, accentuating subtle movements in the logs encapsulated by decades of growth.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第5张图片
View of exterior from the south/南侧外观。© Ben Benschneider

这个房子最近被授予西雅图美国建筑师协会(AIA)优异奖。一位评审员评论道:“这是对当代建筑的智能阐释,同时也给人一种烟火、寒冷和土地的感受,其尺度介于人们与公共社群之间。在多个不同的尺度和多个不同的房间里,这个结构真的相当引人注目。”

The Smokehouse was recently recognized with an AIA Seattle Merit Award. After a personal tour, one of the jurors commented: "It’s an intelligent translation that acknowledges contemporary construction, yet at the same time gives a sense of smell, of coldness, of the earth…It’s scaled in a way that it is caught between the human and communal. The structure was really quite compelling at multiple different scales and multiple different rooms.”

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Wood storage/木材储存室。© Ben Benschneider

客户/未来的使用者是怎样影响到这个建筑的设计及结果的?

children.所有信仰的追随者对于这个新的长屋有着强烈的归属感。一个老人在2012年2月观察到,这将成为100年内Muckleshoot草原第一长屋。它专门保护他们的祖先文化和传统遗产,它这一代人留给他们的孩子的一个礼物。

委员会的成员努力实现这一超过十年的项目,这一项目被视为对该部落的风俗习惯不断增长的关键一步。冬天是长屋的传统季节,在这一年的余下时间,家庭被分散在广阔的领土上,寻找来自海洋、河流和山脉的资源。冬天大家回到一起,分享长屋庇护和温暖,食品储备和故事,围炉歌舞。新屋现在容纳会众的聚会和仪式,还有接待来自该地区的更多熏蒸屋社群的客人。

作为试图重建和振兴文化和宗教传统的聚众,设计就得寻求振兴与发展建筑的根源。

To what extent did the clients and/or future users of the building influence the design and the outcome of the building?
There is a strong sense of communal ownership of this new longhouse among all of the followers of the faith. An elder who spoke at the ground blessing in February of 2012 observed that this would be the first longhouse on the Muckleshoot prairie in more than 100 years. It is dedicated to the legacy of those who fought to preserve the culture and traditions of their Salish ancestors, and it is a gift that this generation will leave for their children.
The members of the committee worked toward achieving this project for over ten years, and it is seen by all as a critical step in the growing revival of the tribe’s customs. Winter is the traditional season of the longhouse. During the remainder of the year, families were dispersed over wide territories seeking resources from the sea, the rivers, and the mountains. Winter brought everyone back together to the shelter and warmth of the longhouse, to food stores and stories, songs and dances around the fires. The new longhouse now hosts the congregation’s gatherings and ceremonies and receives guests from the region’s larger Smokehouse community.
As the congregation has sought to re-establish and re-invigorate its cultural and ritual traditions, the design sought to revitalize a sense of continuity with their architectural roots.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第7张图片
Outdoor cooking area/室外烹饪区。© Ben Benschneider

设计过程中遇到了什么有意思的挑战吗?你们是怎么应对的呢?

这些木材都是来自华盛顿和俄勒冈的卡斯卡特山脉。该结构是在一个木材加工院子里制作和预先组装,然后带到现场的。熏蒸屋是一个斧劈原木、锯材和铣削木材层积而成的作品。雪松柱支撑花旗松头木材,跨越了仪式房和餐厅。檩条木材沿建筑物的长度和支持的椽木运行,舌槽盖板与柱墙框架完整的建筑外壳。雪松壁板和金属屋顶是屋外唯一的装饰材料。

墙壁穿过杉木板外墙和座位层打开板条进行呼吸。老长屋中有开放的火炉,并通过屋顶的开口排烟。Muckleshoot部落选择了封闭的木火炉来改善健康和保证安全。

Were there any significant challenges that arose during the project? If so, how did you respond to them?
The logs were gathered from the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon. The structure was fabricated and pre-assembled in a log builder’s yard, then brought to the site for erection. The smokehouse is a layered assembly of hewn logs, sawn timber, and milled lumber. Cedar columns support Douglas fir header logs that span across the ceremony and dining rooms. Purlin logs run along the length of the building and support the rafter timbers. Tongue and groove decking and stud-framed walls complete the shell of the building.  Cedar siding and metal roofing are the only finish materials on the exterior of the longhouse.
The walls breathe through the cedar plank siding and the open slats of the seating tiers. Historic longhouses had open fires that vented through openings in the roof. The Muckleshoot Tribe opted for enclosed wood stoves for improved health and safety.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第8张图片
Entry from the north/北侧入口。© Ben Benschneider

你怎么评价华盛顿的建筑,这栋建筑和他们有什么联系吗?

华盛顿州的建筑往往以大量的木材为特征,其建筑根据景观和气候条件也不同。熏制室通过追溯古老的重型木材技术重新诠释了木建筑传统的本源。建筑形态经过西北部地区人民代代发展,无论是细节还是材料都体现着土著人的虔诚。

本文由John Hill通过电子邮件采访编写。

How would you describe the architecture of Washington and how does the building relate to it?
Often characterized by a large quantity of wood in its construction, Washington State architecture is as diverse as its landscapes and climates. The Smokehouse reinterprets the roots of the wood tradition by reaching to the historic precedent of heavy timber techniques. Forms developed over generations by the native peoples of the Northwest are reverently echoed in small details and the expression of materials.

Email interview conducted by John Hill.

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第9张图片
Floor plan/平面图

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第10张图片
East-West section/东西剖面

熏制房屋 / Mahlum第11张图片
Cutaway diagram of wood log construction/原木结构示意图

项目名称:Muckleshoot Smokehouse
时间:2013
项目地址:华盛顿 奥本

委托方:Muckleshoot 印第安部落
建筑设计:华盛顿 西雅图Mahlum
总设计师:Anne Schopf, FAIA
项目建筑师:Forest Payne
项目经理:Dwayne Epp
项目团队:Butch Reifert (Principal in Charge), Cristine Traber, James Steel, Masako Flood, Joe Mayo, JoAnn Wilcox
结构工程:PCS Structural Solutions
机电工程:Hultz BHU Engineers
景观建筑:Cascade Design Collaborative
承包商:Donovan Brothers, Inc
木结构:Caribou Creek Log & Timber
土建:Coughlin Porter Lundeen
餐饮服务:Bundy & Associates
灯具定制:Resolute
占地面积:6.3 亩
建设用地面积:16,570平方英尺
摄影:Ben Benschneider
绘图:Mahlum

Muckleshoot Smokehouse
2013
Auburn, Washington
Client: Muckleshoot Indian Tribe
Architect: Mahlum, Seattle, WA
Design Principal: Anne Schopf, FAIA
Project Architect: Forest Payne
Project Manager: Dwayne Epp
Project Team: Butch Reifert (Principal in Charge), Cristine Traber, James Steel, Masako Flood, Joe Mayo, JoAnn Wilcox
Structural Engineer: PCS Structural Solutions
MEP/FP Engineer: Hultz BHU Engineers
Landscape Architect: Cascade Design Collaborative
Contractor: Donovan Brothers, Inc
Timber Construction: Caribou Creek Log & Timber
Civil Engineer: Coughlin Porter Lundeen
Food Service: Bundy & Associates
Custom Lighting: Resolute
Site Area: 6.3 acres
Building Area: 16,570 sf
Photographs: Ben Benschneider
Drawings: Mahlum


出处:本文译自www.world-architects.com/,转载请注明出处。


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