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在这里,每个人都是“艺术家”第1张图片

在墨西哥最暴力的城市之一,上演着建筑与艺术的大片
A Success Story of Architecture and Art in One of Mexico's Most Violent Cities

由专筑网邢子,杨帆编译

一旦一个城市的暴力事件正常化,那么公共空间会变成什么样呢? 虽然相信建筑本身可以为复杂的社会和政治问题提供解决方案是很天真的,但重要的是探索和理解其作为社会变革的先锋力量的可能性。

What becomes of public space once violence is normalized in a city? Though it is naive to believe that architecture by itself can present absolute solutions to complex social and political issues, it is also important to explore and understand its possibilities as an agent of social change, however small.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

在墨西哥,近几十年出现的暴力事件在该国某些地区很明显,这导致整个社区由于动荡的局势而变得脆弱敏感。十多年来,墨西哥建筑师Taniana Bilbao一直参与锡那罗亚州首府库利亚坎市开展的一个多学科项目,并因其参与解决与毒品有关的暴力事件而得到广泛认可。

In Mexico, the wave of violence that has arisen in recent decades is more palpable in certain regions of the country, resulting in entire communities who have been made vulnerable by a fluctuating state of insecurity. For over ten years now, Mexican architect Tatiana Bilbao has been participating in the development of a multidisciplinary project in the city of Culiacán, the capital of the state of Sinaloa and widely recognized for the drug-related violence it harbors.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

JardínBotánicoCuliacán(库利亚坎植物园)是一个公共空间,在2002年由当地商人策划了一项全新的项目,用于私人的当代艺术收藏。许多艺术家被委托访问该园,并创建了一个艺术维度的空间,这激发了人们对于审美、感官和体验上的各种反应。

The Jardín Botánico Culiacán (Culiacán Botanical Garden) is a public space that undertook an ambitious project in 2002 directed by a local businessman with an extensive private contemporary art collection. A slew of artists were commissioned to visit the site and create installations that added an artistic dimension to the space, inspiring varied reactions in its users and functioning as an aesthetic, sensorial, and intellectual experience.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

墨西哥北部的这个小城市现在是一个公共空间的所在地,这里设有国际知名艺术家James Turrell,Olafur Eliasson,Dan Graham,Richard Long,Gabriel Orozco,Teresa Margolles等等的艺术作品。
  
Somewhat incredibly, this small city in northern Mexico is now home to a public space where one can visit pieces by internationally renowned artists such as James Turrell, Olafur Eliasson, Dan Graham, Richard Long, Gabriel Orozco, Teresa Margolles, and more.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

在接下来的采访中,Bilbao谈到了项目的完成阶段及未来策划,包括建筑师在与陌生社区合作时的社会责任,以及如何看待在传统的“白盒子”之外呈现当代艺术博物馆的想法。

In the following interview, Bilbao speaks on the completed phases of the project, the phases yet to come, the social responsibility of an architect when working with unfamiliar communities, and the advantages of presenting contemporary art outside of the "white box" offered by traditional museums.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

Karina Zatarain:你什么时候参与这个项目?

Tatiana Bilbao:这个项目的开始真的没有确切的日期...我可以告诉你,我在2005年6月开始工作。植物园经历了许多变化。起初,Carlos Murillo专注于植物收藏任务。然后,Agustín[Coppel]参与并开始从他的艺术收藏中捐赠了几件作品,最终他邀请了Patrick Charpenel帮助策展了该项目,这是在2004年到2005年之间项目真正开始成形的时候,而Charpenel提出了一个更加雄心勃勃的项目:委托每位艺术家为花园制作一个特定地点的作品。当我被邀请的时候,我来了,说:“为什么我们不做一个更综合的项目呢?”

Karina Zatarain: When and how did you get involved in this project?
Tatiana Bilbao: There's really not an exact date for when this project began... I can tell you I started working on it in June of 2005. The Botanical Garden has undergone many evolutions. At first, there was Carlos Murillo, who focused on the amazing task of building a botanical collection. Then Agustín [Coppel] got involved and began donating a couple of pieces from his art collection, and eventually, he invited Patrick Charpenel to help curate the site. That was when it all really began to take shape, between 2004 and 2005. Patrick proposed a more ambitious project: commissioning each artist to make a site-specific piece for the Garden. That's when I was invited; I arrived and said "why don't we do a more integrated project?"

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

首先,我们决定我们的主要目标是将植物园提升到一个新水平,使其成为世界上最好的。为此,我们必须大力投入艺术收藏,以及空间上的体验。当地的环境运营机构开始对园内所有物种进行分类。在那个时候,Charpenel要求艺术家去现场,以了解自己的设计空间和周围的社会环境。另一方面,我试图找到一种将空间整合的方法:现存的花园,艺术收藏以及一些建筑物和展馆的未来建设,使项目能够发挥作用。

First we decided our main objective was to design a space that would take the Botanical Garden to a new level, making it one of the best in the world. For that, we had to invest strongly in the art collection and how it would be experienced spatially. The local Environmental Operations agency began to work on a classification of all the species present in the Garden. At that moment, Patrick [Charpenel] asked the artists to travel to the site in order to sensitize themselves to the space and the social context that surrounds it. On the other hand, I was trying to find a way to integrate everything spatially: the existent garden, the art collection, and the future construction of some buildings and pavilions that would enable the program to function.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

首先,我们从建筑空间角度出发,分析了花园所需要的:仓储和办公空间,维修区域和员工用房。在植物学方面:种子收集,标本馆,温室,还有教育和艺术空间:礼堂,教室,展览空间和图书馆。我们设计了一个总体规划,并开始阶段性地投入建设。

First we analyzed, in terms of built space, what the Garden required: storage and office space, maintenance areas and areas for employees. For the botanical aspect: seed collection, a herbarium, a greenhouse... finally, the educational and art programs: an auditorium, a classroom, exhibition space, and a library. We designed a program and began building in phases.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

KZ:Culiacán植物园是您工作十年以上的项目。作为一名建筑师,在如此长的时间内开发项目可以获得什么?

TB:收获颇丰。早在2005年,它是我的项目之一,它是如此令人兴奋;在那一刻它是唯一的,所以我想看到它完工并投入使用。而现在,经过这么多年的时间,我回想起来,仍是感到不可思议的。

我们这个职业,如果不再用时间来衡量建筑,这是非常有害的。一方面是暂时的主题,以及技术,对于一些项目来说,剥夺永久性是一个积极的事情。但是,我认为对于公共空间来说,人们受益于建筑在广泛的时期内发展的结果。作为一名建筑师,时间允许你真正了解发生的情况,了解场所并进行更深入的反应。

即使如此,我们仍然不能完全理解,我可以向你保证,Culiacán的人的观感会与我不同,我不是出生在那里,那里不是我的文化,但我认为给我机会,通过时间体验,我将以不同的方式更好地设计。

KZ: The Culiacán Botanical Garden is a project you've worked on for over a decade. As an architect, what do you gain by developing a project over such a long span of time?
TB: You gain so much. Back in 2005 it was one of my first projects and it was so exciting; it still is... But at that moment it was the only one. So I wanted to see it all built and ready to use. And now, after so much time has passed, I think back and it's been incredible...
One thing that we as a profession seem to no longer understand is the time that architecture requires, and that's very harmful. On one hand there's the subject of the ephemeral, and of how technology has enabled us to build quickly, and for some programs it's a positive thing to strip them of the weight of permanence. But I think with public space specifically, it benefits from being developed during a broad period of time. As an architect, time gives you permission to really see what is happening there, to understand the place and react in a deeper way.
And even so, we still don't understand it fully, I can assure you that someone from Culiacán sees it differently than I. I wasn't born there and it isn't my culture, but I do think that being given the opportunity to experience it through time has allowed me to act differently than I would have otherwise.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

KZ:在面临Culiacán社会问题时,建筑的作用或责任是什么?

TB:首先,最大的责任是不要以为你知道一切。如果你认为你会解决一切你不熟悉的东西,这是非常傲慢的。 你必须明白,在所有人中,你对这个地方和情况知之甚少,只有以这种方式行事,你才能在外界看到真正你想要的东西。

在植物园,看到各种各样的人聚集在一起,将园区转化为城市中的一片绿洲,真是太神奇了。这是一个奇妙的事情,因为它是一个完全可以访问的空间,所有的社会阶层都融合在一起,所有的年龄层聚集在一起,成为一个远离城市的避难所。这不是我,而是Carlos Murillo多年前的想法,一个向所有公民提供有趣活动的民主空间是非常有价值的贡献。

这就是我们在公共空间方面应该促进的:它是一个民主的空间,一个开阔的空间,它为所有人提供了可能性。没有任何社会决定与此有关的空间是项目可以实现的最佳因素。这是真正使Culiacán植物园取得成功的原因。

KZ: In a city facing the social issues Culiacán does, what is architecture's role or responsibility?
TB: First, the biggest responsibility is not thinking you know everything. It's very arrogant to arrive thinking you're going to solve something you're not familiar with. You must understand that out of everyone there, you have the least knowledge of the place and situation, and only by acting in this way can you offer a real benefit in your outside perspective.
In the Botanical Garden it is amazing to see how all kinds of people converge and how it has become an oasis in the middle of the city. It's a curious thing, because it's a fully accessible space where all social strata converge, all ages, and as I see it, it's something of a refuge from the city. To have generated—and it wasn't me but Carlos Murillo many years ago—a democratic space that offers interesting activities to all citizens is a very valuable contribution.
That's what we should promote, in terms of public space: that it be a democratic space, an open space, and that it offer possibilities for all. A space that offers no resistance to whatever society decides to do with it is the best thing architecture can achieve. It's what has really made the Culiacán Botanical Garden a success.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

KZ:我从来没有见过人们以艺术的方式与他们在这里互动,但却被专业人士和学者认为是艺术(昂贵的艺术),我们似乎感觉到它的一些东西;与城市其他地方发生的事情有所不同。 你怎样认为?

TB:你知道这是什么吗? 这就是打破白盒空间的力量,我们只有身临其境才会明白。看到植物园如何在库利亚坎推广当代艺术,并如此令人印象深刻。

例如,锡那罗亚艺术博物馆[MASin]已经进行了许多变革,并举办了很多展览,但它仍然是一个博物馆,仍然存在象征性的障碍,许多人不敢进入,因为它仍然是一个机构,一个封闭的空间。而这个项目通过以这种自发的方式添加艺术,没有限制,在开放的空间,它开始自己与公众互动。

KZ: I have never seen people interact with art the way they do here, without knowing it’s been deemed art (expensive art, at that) by professionals and academics and yet, seemingly sensing something from it; something different to what is going on in the rest of the city. Why do you think this is?
TB: You know what that is? Breaking the white box. And that was something we didn't realize until we were there. It's so impressive to see how the Botanical Garden is promoting contemporary art in Culiacán in a way that nothing ever has before and nothing else would have been able to do.
For instance, the Sinaloa Art Museum [MASin] has undergone many transformations and has presented amazing exhibitions, but it is still a museum. There's still a symbolic barrier that exists and many people don't dare enter it, because it remains an institution, a closed space. By adding art in such a spontaneous way, with no restrictions, to an open space, it begins to interact with the public on its own.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

KZ:在公众自己的规则下...

TB:当然。例如,令人好奇的泰瑞莎-马格勒斯(Teresa Margolles)的作品发生了什么变化,一系列具有混合性的长凳,用混凝土混合了停尸房中冲洗了与毒品有关的暴力受害者尸体后的水制成。我们安装了它们,一年来,他们没有解释这里发生了什么。但它点燃了一场革命。人们联系当选官员,使用长凳的妇女抱怨说没有人向他们解释过。他们不明白这件事,或者是想要实现什么。然后,泰瑞莎去花园做演讲,突然间,这些女人成了花园里最热情的艺术推动者。

这就是当代艺术所要做的,这就是它的作用,反映了我们的时代,让人们通过它来思考某些主题。当然,一些艺术比其他艺术更具政治色彩,显然这件作品是政治性的,但也是一个社会问题。这些事绝对不会在博物馆里发生。这些妇女以非常重要的方式接近艺术,是一种非常内向的方式,因为它们面对着它,并有机会适应它,将其融入日常生活中。这是关键,打破了既有障碍,使艺术可及。

KZ: And under the public's own rules...
TB: Absolutely. For instance, it was curious what happened with Teresa Margolles' piece, a series of benches made with concrete that was mixed using the same water from the morgue that had washed the bodies of victims of drug-related violence. We installed them, but for a year they lacked the inscription that explained what was going on with that piece. When it was finally installed, it ignited a revolution. People contacted their elected officials, the women that had used the benches complained that nobody had explained this to them. They didn't understand the piece or what it was trying to achieve. Then Teresa went to the garden and gave a lecture, and suddenly these same women became the most enthusiastic promoters of art in the Garden.
And that's what contemporary art has to do, that's what it's about, being a reflection of our time and allowing people to ponder certain subjects through it. Of course some art is more political than other art, evidently this piece is political, but it's also a social matter. And what happened with it would never have happened in a museum. These women approached art in a very important way, a very visceral way, because they were confronted by it and had a chance to appropriate it and incorporate it to their everyday lives. That's the key, breaking the barriers and making art accessible.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

所以这告诉我很多关于如何采取行动的方式。在这种情况下,有一个收藏家捐赠资金,建立一个博物馆,会发生什么事? 不会。艺术不会以它的方式渗入社会。这使我想到如何从许多不同的角度去做,并且理解,作为建筑师,你并不能强加某个特定的行为,脱离这种习惯不容易,我不认为我已经完成了学习。在花园里,这是一个了不起的学习任务。
  
这种经验教会我在设计过程中采取的任何步骤,都要经过深思熟虑,如何采取行动,如何避免强加什么是好的想法。如果这是一个博物馆,显然这个意图很棒。但是好的意图不一定会产生好的结果。通过参与这个项目,我学会了质疑我的建议是否真的是这个地方和文化问题的最佳解决方案,这让我把各种各样的人融入我的项目中。

So that tells me a lot about how to act. In this case, having a collection and someone to donate the funds, anyone would have thought, great, let's build a museum! And what would have happened? Nothing. The art would not have permeated into society in the way it did. That leads me to think about how to act from many different angles and to understand that as an architect you can't impose a certain program. It's not easy to detach yourself from that habit and I don't think I've managed to do so completely. In the Garden it was an amazing coincidence.
This experience has taught me to reflect deeply before taking any steps forward in my design process... how to act, how to avoid imposing my beliefs about what is good. If this had been a museum, obviously the intentions would have been great. But a good intention does not necessarily produce a good result. By participating in this project I have learned to always question whether what I propose is truly the best solution for that place and culture. It has made me integrate all sorts of people in my process.

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán

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Cortesía de Jardín Botánico de Culiacán


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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