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嵌入——城市边缘的社会住宅第1张图片

该项目体现了我们的设计研究努力创造一个栖息地,在这里人,建筑与自然和谐地共存。
值得我们女努力的前提:
如果数百年来人类致力于去获得独立并最终征服自然,然后在本世纪人类将重点放在了解如何成为自然的一部分。

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通过这个项目我们提出城市扩张的问题:什么是恰当的建筑,生态和关注城市的设计来应对已经是绿地的基地所需的一定密度的发展规划?更精确的:如何界定那些构思如何设计城市的边缘的想法?这个面积要求有63000平方英尺的社会住房项目共80个公寓,分布在四座建筑里,且每个建筑自身形成一个区域。此外,我们将提供必要的停车空间,一个儿童游乐场,公园和到达每个公寓的消防通道。公寓的大小和房间面积都是特定的,因为公寓类型和大小很多。

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这块丘陵地正好坐落在里耶卡的城市边缘,毗邻大面积的森林。整个基地都是绿色森林的聚集地,森林茂密,物种繁多。很显然,基地到现在都是一片绿色区域。基地现存的特质有:森林,场地的地形,俯瞰城市的山头。我们决定把这些特质作为新规划建筑的关键,这些特质定义了人类定居地与自然栖息地之间的关系。

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我们称这个项目为“嵌入”,这在建筑词汇中通常是指在一个发展紧密和成熟的城市中插入一个建筑,但这一次,我们“在自然”里嵌入建筑物。同时,“嵌入”也是一个数学术语,解释了我们如何根据场地标高确定建筑物的位置和形状。

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我们的策略是充分利用场地地形。我们开始寻找基地内跟两侧街道标高相同的位置,并依照地势布置建筑,这种方式减小了对土壤乃至最终对森林的破坏。这一战略是唯一有保证的最低干扰的地形,这意味着在这种情况的最低干扰的土壤,因此森林。但由于地形标高如此复杂,我们“嵌入”等高线,这些等高线我们经过调整为四点折线。这些折线形成每个弯曲两次的建筑体型(2个交通核)和三个折点间的多样的长度。这要求一个非常灵活而严格的系统来适应多样的地形状况和达到想要的公寓面积。

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了解到这块地的土壤是石灰石(大部分沿克罗地亚海岸都是如此)很重要,从而才能理解保护树木生长的场地的重要性。我们发现,这里能有树木生长是因为50年前种植的松树可以产生土壤,从而使其他物种播种,生长进而产生更多土壤,这样就为森林生态系统创造了基础。因此铲除基地的任何一部分都摧毁了这个年轻而完善的生态系统。

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再者,建筑一层架空,这使得地面在土地与建筑物之间自由延展。整个基地及其周围,虽然是城市的边缘,确明显而可感知;城市与自然的有形地对话,如此成为栖居之地。

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通过将建筑物垂直于城市的边缘,每个公寓可以同时享有城市和森林的景观,这对那些小而实用的户型是必不可少的。另外一个目的是让所有的公寓能看到亚得里亚海。两侧设置公寓单元的建筑类型和抬高一层的措施使得每家每户享有壮观的海景。对克罗地亚沿海城市的居民来说,享受海景是他们最珍贵的非物质财产。

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项目背景:
我们在2008年的8月在克罗地亚赢得这项经过邀请,公开和匿名的廉租公寓竞赛。国家住房补贴计划通过匿名竞赛,强调方案对城市和建筑品质的重要性,遴选得奖方案和建筑师。由于复杂的产权问题,政治变革和建设施工投标失败,该项目推迟了多年,终于在2012年9月开工,预计2013年年底竣工。


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特别鸣谢翻译一组5号 叶军 提供的翻译,译稿版权归译者所有,转载请注明出处。



If for hundreds of years humanity focused on the ways to be independent of and eventually master nature, then during this century humanity will focus on the ways to come to an understanding on how to be part of nature.

With this project for social housing we pose fundamental questions about the expansion of the city: What is the right architectural, ecological and urban design response to building the required dense development on this site that up until now has been be a green zone? More precisely: How to re-define ideas of how to design the conditions of the EDGE OF THE CITY?

The requirements of this 63,000 sq.ft. project for social housing are to design 80 condominiums in 4 buildings each on its own newly formed lot. In addition we are to provide required parking spaces, a children’s playground, park areas and fire lanes to reach each condominium. The condominium sizes and all room areas are specified, as is a wide range of apartment types and sizes.

The hilly parcel of land is located right on the edge of the city of Rijeka and bordering a large forested area. The entire site is a habitat for a dense forest that is green, wild and varied in species. It is clear that the site was a green zone until now.
The given qualities of the site are: the forest, the topography of the site and the top of the hill overlooking the city. We decided to keep these qualities as key of the new development with the buildings defining the relationships between human habitat and natural habitat.


Architecture plan(picture from architects)

We call this project INTERPOLATION, which in architectural vocabulary usually means insertion of a building in a tight and mature city fabric, but this time we mean Interpolation of building INTO THE NATURE. Incidentally, interpolation is also a mathematical term for how we defined the location and the shape of the buildings based on the topographic contours of the site.

Our strategy is to work with and take advantage of the complex topography of the site. We started by finding locations where land is at the same elevation as the two surrounding streets and from there to follow the topographical contours with the building. This strategy is the only way to ensure minimum disturbance of the topography, which in this case means the minimum disturbance of the soil and consequently of the forest. But since the topography of the site is so extreme, we “interpolated” the topographic curves that we have chosen in order to reduce them to four-point polylines. These polylines inform the building shapes with two “bends” each (two building cores) and three variable lengths between these polyline points. This allows a very flexible yet rigorous system to accommodate many different topographical situations and also the many desired apartment sizes.

To understand the importance of preserving the ground on which the trees grow it is important to know that the soil on this land is bare lime stone (just as along most of the Croatian coast). We found that the trees grow in this ground because 50 years ago pine trees were planted in order to produce soil, which allowed other species to seed, grow and produce more soil, thus creating the basis for the forest’s ecological system. Therefore bulldozing any part of the site destroys this still young but well established system.

Further the buildings are lifted off the ground with empty ground levels which allows the ground to flow freely underneath and between the buildings. The entire site and its surrounding, which is the edge of the city, is perceivable; the contact between city and nature is tangible and in this case - inhabitable.

By choosing to place the buildings perpendicular to the edge of the city every condominium will have a view of the city and the forest, which are essential to this housing type that offers its inhabitants small and affordable, yet functional spaces. An additional objective is to give all condominiums a view of the Adriatic Sea. Our building typology of double sided units and lifting the buildings off the ground allows a view of this gorgeous sea from every single condominium. For people of costal cities in Croatia, the view of the sea is the most prized non-material element of their dwelling.

Project context:
We won this invited, open and anonymous competition for affordable housing in Croatia in August 2008. The national subsidized housing program of Croatia selects proposals and architects based on anonymous architectural competitions with an emphasis on the quality of the urban and architectural solutions of the winning entries. After years of delay due to complicated property rights issues, political changes and a failed construction bid, construction has finally started in September 2012. Completion is scheduled for end of 2013.

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 匿名

  • Yanggongping
  • 2013.01.30 13:50
    • 0
  • monkey豪豪
  • 2013.01.29 15:05
    不是太懂要说的理念
    • 0
  • 依然詹姆斯
  • 2013.01.25 16:43
    让人看不懂的分析图
    • 0
  • 陈硕
  • 2013.01.24 21:22
    我喜欢“嵌入”这一概念......建筑本就应该作为自然一部分
    • 0
    没有了...
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