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科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第1张图片

建筑师:BAK Architects建筑事务所
地点:阿根廷,布宜诺斯艾利斯省,艾丝美拉达
项目:María Victoria Besonías, Luciano Kruk
贡献者: Arq. Nuria Jover, Enzo Vitali
面积:120.6平方米
年份:2011
摄影:图片由BAK Architects建筑事务所提供

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第2张图片

同的景观类型而著称,植被为多样的松树林,与Mar Azul森林植被稀少的地方具有相似特征。反过来,此处地形也多种多样,有有平原、洼地、带陡峭斜坡的高原,而这座建筑的用地位于一片海岸边的沙丘上。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第3张图片

根据相关的数据,该地向中心位置略微低洼,前沿有一排约3米的金合欢树。这两点非常有趣,因为在周围低密度的建筑环境中该建筑作为仅有的几个建筑之一很容易显露出来,可是这两点却可以使得该建筑具有保持隐私的特权。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第4张图片

气候为设计过程中的决定因素之一,由于该地位于海边这一特别的位置,此处气候比较严酷,夏季气候炎热,阳光辐射强烈,由于植被缺乏更加剧了这一影响,冬季则非常寒冷、潮湿而多风。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第5张图片

这是我们在科斯塔艾丝美拉达的第一个项目,始建于2004年,为Pinamar旁的房地产开发项目。通过最近的调查可知,目前此处几乎没有建筑, 业主要求把该项目建成Mar Azul夏季的度假住宅,兼具美学与舒适,便于维护且采用混凝土建成。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第6张图片

该建筑内部要设置两个常用卧室外加一个客房,以接待年长一点的孩子或是来访的客人。由于业主本身就是各种设备制造商,室内空调的制冷和制热系统分别采用不同的设备来实现。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第7张图片

设计利用了街道与用地之间的高度差。基于这个原因,我们决定将建筑分为两个相互垂直的部分,以不同的标高连接构成L形,为了更好地保护业主的隐私,将包含隐私房间的那部分置于顶层,并与前面街道垂直设置。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第8张图片

用于公共空间的更高建筑部分则与街道相平行,利用前面的金合欢树来进行遮挡,既保护了隐私,又不会阻挡业主欣赏更远处无尽的荒原景色。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第9张图片

反过来,其较高的位置试图略微高于金合欢树的水平,以便其在街道中彰显其存在感。

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该部分作为一个细长的棱镜,由设置卧室的一端支承。另一端置有一堵外墙,在较低的水平,烤箱半包,利用灵活的使用空间存储两辆车,同时为组织经典的烧烤做准备。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第11张图片

这部分建筑受到两方面的保护,一方面来自外部水平差的视觉感,另一部分来自建筑前茂盛的金合欢树,因此,那里可以方便的承办各种活动。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第12张图片

这种水平差的解决首先通过街道旁的楼梯实现,街道是一座桥体的延续穿越了金合欢树,可以在其间散步,步入更高水平上的大门。建筑还设计了第二阶楼梯,连接了局部覆盖的区域和主楼。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第13张图片

较高水平的主入口问题已得到解决,因此这种做法节省了街道水平与入口水平一半的楼高。(或更亲密的房间),一小间厕所(将用餐厅和卧室分开),以及厨房,并通过连接各个楼层的楼梯将客厅和卧室分开。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第14张图片

两间一楼带浴室的卧室都集中在棱柱的部分。这一部分面向室内的地板到天花板的木料,可以欣赏周围的自然景观;然而,西南面的墙位于到主地板楼梯的连接部分,这使得该开口变小。

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佣金中还包括第三间卧室,偶尔用来接待长子或客人。我们决定它应该作为主要生活空间的一部分,以获得使用该空间的可能,在其独立的过程中将其融入到计划的其他部分。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第16张图片

主体建筑被看作局部覆盖的空间,因为,它的两个长边-前边和后边-滑动开口相互融合,可以在天气允许的情况下打开,这种天气大概有三分之二。

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在西北面建筑的前面,开发了一个双外表的系统:前面,一排白雀木板搭成的垂直遮阳板;后面,从地板到天花板一线的木制工艺。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第18张图片

这是因为,业主要求避免太阳直射辐射,同时保护业主隐私,人们从街道看不到室内的情况。这部分位于建筑的西端,集客厅和用餐厅的功能为一体,设有偶尔使用的卧室

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第19张图片

一楼的建筑比楼上的建筑更隐蔽,通过承重墙和板带圈梁很容易解决。此外,楼上的解决方法是安置一根连接梁,一端在卧室支撑,另一端安在靠在地面上的隔墙上。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第20张图片

该板由两根大梁支撑,它们横穿该建筑最长的方向。向前有一根40厘米高的大梁,朝后有一根作为镶窗女墙的倒梁。顶板或屋顶由两个隐藏在底层地板和绝热板的倒梁支撑。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第21张图片

该项目由露石混凝土制成,这是一种用于简单建筑结构和修饰的材料。H21混凝土通过添加一种稀释剂使用,这种混合物无需密封用少量的水硬化就可以变得紧密。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第22张图片

此外,混凝土的品质和其抗渗性使得任何表面修饰都变得多余。这降低了施工和将来维护的成本。为了适应森林这一具有更多极端状况的新环境建筑系统,提高保温隔热是十分必要的。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第23张图片

而为了解决高楼层的包围问题,其顶部采用了隐藏在两个倒梁之后的低密度垫层。另外,为了改善外墙的绝缘,内部构建了另一扇混凝土墙,在两层墙之间填放绝缘材料。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第24张图片

卧室和主楼层都有交叉通风的设计,可以保证空气流通,从而确保房子在夏季海风的吹拂下保持清新。在建筑正面还安置了一排红克夫阳伞行,以免太阳光直射入玻璃墙。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第25张图片

为了达到最低限度的维护,还选择了白雀木。该建筑供热系统选用冷、热空调,包括家庭蝾螈以补充加热系统。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第26张图片

室内隔断墙由砖块砌成,用白乳胶粉刷。浴室配有白色的搪瓷陶瓷而非混凝土表面的墙壁。地面也采用与铝板分离的水泥涂层。墙壁和地板的接头部分以铝合金的凹槽作为底座而解决。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第27张图片

如上文所述,该建筑基本上是两部分以“L”型在各层相交。低楼层构成了最私人的部分,而较高楼层包括更多的公共区域。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第28张图片

光线和视觉效果的处理与这些概念紧密相连。低楼层部分靠近西面隔墙以保证卧室的隐私(考虑到将来的邻居)且它朝向内部景观以便欣赏自然美景(外面周围景观受到茂盛的金合欢树的保护)。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第29张图片

因此,我们可以说,该部分已控制了照明,且更加封闭。相反,较高楼层则被设计为一个完全开放、透明的办实体建筑,可尽享远处的景观并获得更多的自然采光。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第30张图片

遮阳伞减少了阳光的影响,并防止阳光投下的长长的阴影,从而创造一个非常特殊的环境,同时也作为室内外的分隔物,保证室内可欣赏室外的景色,而室外却看不见室内的情形。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第31张图片

关于自然光的另一处应用就是主建筑屋顶的两个天窗,一个位于楼梯上方,另一个在预定安置壁炉 ,蝾螈区域的上方。

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第32张图片

前者使得阳光进入,从而产生两个建筑体垂直交叉部分的层次感。后者在设定家庭聚会的地方产生了关注的中心和层次感,同时还可以在厕所以自然光照明。

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立体图 Elevation

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第34张图片

立体图 Elevation

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第35张图片

立体图 Elevation

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第36张图片

立体图 Elevation

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第37张图片

平面设计图 Plan

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第38张图片

平面设计图 Plan

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第39张图片

截面图 Section

科斯塔 艾丝美拉达住宅/ BAK Architects建筑事务所第40张图片

截面图 Section


特别鸣谢翻译一组10号 张晓丽 提供的翻译,译稿版权归译者所有,转载请注出明处。



Architects: BAK Architects
Location: La Esmeralda, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
Project: María Victoria Besonías, Luciano Kruk
Contributors: Arq. Nuria Jover, Enzo Vitali
Area: 120.6 sqm
Year: 2011
Photographs: Courtesy of BAK Architects

This was our first project in Costa Esmeralda, a real estate development neighbor to Pinamar started in 2004. As a recent batching, at the moment there are very few constructions and the place is known for having different types of landscapes, with vegetation varying from pine forests, with similar characteristics to the forest of Mar Azul, to areas where that vegetation is scarce. In turn, topography also has a variety of situations, and there are flat areas, depressed, or elevations with steep slopes, as this lot division was made over an area of coastal dunes. The lot has, as most relevant data, a slight depression towards the center and a row of acacia trees of about 3 meters in height parallel to the front line. These two features are very interesting, since both depression and acacias give privacy within the field which is a privilege, given the low density of the neighborhood that leaves it very exposed to the few existing buildings.

The weather was a determinant factor at the time of the project generation, given the conditions of this area of the sea coast and this particular batch. It is a harsh climate, temperatures are high during the summer as the solar radiation impacts directly by the lack of vegetation, and winters are cold, wet and windy.

The client requested the project of a summer house with aesthetics and benefits, in terms of maintenance, built of concrete houses in Mar Azul. The house should have two rooms and a third of sporadic use: to be visited by an older child or eventual guests. The heating and cooling system should be resolved through the use of split equipment, since the client is the manufacturer of these equipments.

The projectual answer seeks to capitalize on the difference in level between the street and within the lot. For this reason, we decided to solve the house in two volumes perpendicularly intersecting in “L” at different levels, opting to provide more privacy to the volume that contains the private uses of the house by resting over the level of the lot and placing it perpendicular to the front. The higher volume, of public use, is resolved alongside the front line taking advantage of the acacia trees that provide privacy and allow the enjoyment of the far views into the wilderness environment, in turn its elevated position sought to provide the house some presence from the street leaning out slightly above the level of the acacias.

This volume was generated as an elongated prism, supported at one end over the volume of the bedrooms. At the opposite end rests on a blind lateral wall on which, in the lower level, the grill was located taking advantage of the partially covered generated as flexible use space serving both for storing of two cars as for preparation and enjoyment of the classic roast. This space is protected from external visuals in part by the difference of level and in part by the abundance of acacias on the front of the lot, so that there can easily develop all kinds of activities.

Access to the house has been solved on the high level of the main floor, so it should save the half-height difference between the street level and the access level. This difference is saved in the first instance, by a stairway near the street that continues on a bridge that crosses the acacias, allowing the enjoyment of walking between them and the arrival at the gateway to the higher floor. It was also projected a second staircase that links the partially covered area with access to the main floor.

Two bedrooms en suite are nucleated in a prismatic volume at ground level. This volume opens towards the interior of lot with floor to ceiling woodwork to enjoy the views of the surrounding nature; however the openings become smaller on the partition wall of the SW, where is located the circulation that connects to a stairway leading to the main floor of the house. In the commission was also required a third bedroom of sporadic use to receive the eldest son or eventual guests. We decided it should be part of the main living space with the possibility of integration to gain use of that space, incorporating it to the rest of the plan during the time it remains free.

The main volume was conceived almost like a partially covered space since, for his two long sides, -the front and back- sliding openings were incorporated which can be opened when the weather permits in a proportion of two thirds. To the front of the volume of guidance Northwest is developed a system of double skin: in front, a row of vertical sunshades of quebracho boards, and behind a line of carpentry from floor to ceiling. This was required to prevent direct sun radiation and, at the same time, to provide a privacy bellow that protects from the view from the street to the interior. This volume brings together the functions of living and dining room, integrated bedroom for occasional use (or a room with more intimacy), a small toilet (which separates the dining room from the integrated bedroom) and the kitchen, located on the west end of the volume, separated from living-room by the stairwell that links this level with the volume of the bedrooms.
The volume of ground floor, which is blinder than the elevated volume, is easily resolved by bearing walls and a slab with ring beams. Moreover, the upper volume is resolved as a bridge supported at one end on the volume of the bedroom and, at the opposite end, on a closing wall which extends to lean on the ground. This slab is supported by two beams that run through to the volume in its longest direction. Towards the front, a 40 cm high beam, and facing the back, an inverted beam works as back parapet for fenestration. The top slab or roof is supported by two inverted beams hiding the subfloor and the thermal insulation.

The work was done in exposed concrete, a material that unifies in a single element structure and finishing. H21 concrete was used with the addition of a fluidifiant so that this mixture, with little amount of water to harden, results very compact and doesn’t require sealing. Furthermore, the expressive quality of concrete and its resistance and impermeability, made superfluous any type of surface finish. It achieves a low cost of execution at finishing and needless future maintenance. To adapt the building system used in the forest to this new environment of more extreme conditions was necessary to improve the thermal insulation. To solve the thermal insulation of the elevated volume cover was made a low density underlayment which is hidden behind two inverted beams. Furthermore, to improve the insulation of the exterior walls a second concrete wall was constructed on the inside, leaving between the two partitions a space where the insulating material was placed.

Cross ventilation was designed both in the bedrooms and on the main floor to allow air circulation and thus to ensure that the house will be refresh in summer with the sea breeze. In the main façade was also implemented a parasols row of red quebracho to avoid the direct incidence of sunlight over the glazed enclosure. Quebracho wood was chosen considering a minimum maintenance. The heating system of this house is given by the use of hot and cold air conditioners. Was also included a home-salamander to complement the heating system. The few interior partition walls are of brick, plastered and painted with white latex. Bathrooms feature white enameled ceramic coating on the walls that are not of concrete. The floor cloths are also from concrete screed divided with aluminum plates. The meeting between walls and the floor was resolved with a recessed aluminum profile, as a base.

As detailed above, the book is basically in two volumes in ¨ L intersecting at different levels. The lower volume constitutes the most private part of the house while the higher volume contains the more public area. The treatment of light and visuals is closely linked to these concepts. The lower volume is closed towards the western dividing wall to provide privacy to the bedrooms sector (thinking on the future occupations of neighboring lots) and it opens towards the interior of the lot to enjoy the natural environment visuals (outside visual surroundings protected by the abundance of acacia). So we can say that this volume has controlled lighting and is more tightly closed. In contrast, the higher volume is designed as a completely open and permeable volume, as a semi-covered that rises to enjoy more distant views and greater natural lighting.

The implementation of the parasols cushions the impact of sunlight and sifted the entry of sunlight casting long shadows and creating a very special atmosphere, serving also as separation bellows between inside and the private outside, allowing you to see outward but avoiding views inward. Another resource utilized regarding the natural light is the aperture of two skylights in the roof of the main volume, one on the stairway and the other on the area destined to the fireplace – salamander. The skylight placed on the stairway generates an entry of light which gives hierarchy to the union space of the two volumes vertically. The skylight above the fireplace – salamander area generates a center of attention and hierarchy in the sector of the plan destined to family reunion, while that allows also the illumination of the toilette with natural light.
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 匿名

  • Yanggongping
  • 2013.01.30 14:06
    • 0
  • 依然詹姆斯
  • 2013.01.26 14:14
    色调很典雅,空间处理很简洁
    • 0
  • 陈硕
  • 2013.01.24 17:43
    混凝土与木质的结合与运用感觉非常到位。建筑师好像下了很多功夫去调节建筑形体与环境间的关系..........处处透漏着简约之风....喜欢
    • 0
  • 红色的小蚂蚁
  • 2013.01.24 17:18
    作品整体风格非常的简单,甚至是简单到底了,但是空间的分隔还是很有想法的,不过在室内全部使用这个灰色系,真的是冷到极致了,混凝土的运用不比安藤差,不错。请问他的大百叶是电动的吗?或者可以收到一边,像帘子一样收起来?
    • 0
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