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可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第1张图片

© Yifat Zailer

多元建筑:数字设计与乡土工艺的结合
Hybrid Architecture: Combining Digital Design and Vernacular Crafts

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

在阿根廷Mendoza,数字制造研究实验室Node 39 FabLab设计了一个由数字技术切割木材制成的框架织机结构,协助国家中部地区的原住民编织和创造他们的传统图案。在巴西东北部的塞阿拉州,塞阿拉州联邦大学的一项名为“数字工匠”(Artífices Digitais)的研究使用数字制造工具,即3D打印,制作数字模型,如数字假肢,修复鲁萨斯市的母亲教堂高坛的损坏部分。

In Mendoza, Argentina, the digital fabrication research lab Node 39 FabLab created a frame loom structure made of digitally cut wood to help indigenous people in the central region of the country weave and create their traditional patterns. In the state of Ceará, northeast Brazil, a study entitled "Artífices Digitais" (Digital Artisans) by the Federal University of the State of Ceará used digital fabrication tools, namely 3D printing, to produce digital models, like digital prosthetics, to restore the damaged parts of an altarpiece of the high altar of the Mother Church in the city of Russas.

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第2张图片

Aquahoja. Image Courtesy of MIT Media Lab

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第3张图片

© Christian J. Lange


这些只是许多新技术中的两个例子,这些技术一直在结合手工技术和数字技术的特点。此举突出了当今世界的一个奇怪的矛盾,数字工具使一切都更容易获得,也更相似,所以人们一直渴望表达每个地方、每个社区、每个建筑师的独特性。在这个意义上,数字和乡土这两个世界之间的联系是系统复制和独特工艺之间的一种选择。

有人说,特别是当涉及到大学里越来越多的特定机器时,当数字制造应用于建筑时,是一种“回归物质性”,强调材料和技术,而不是智力知识。然而,值得注意的是,这不仅仅是一个技术更新,并不只是简单的新工具,而是一个重要的机会,重新思考我们如何创造建筑,并把它们纳入环境和社会可持续性的原则中。

在这种情况下,出现了一种被称为“数字乡土”的策略,将传统建筑的特点和当前的数字技术结合起来,努力使当代设计更加可行,并且更创新。《数字乡土:建筑原则、工具和过程》一书的作者史蒂文斯和纳尔逊说,保持初心是一种与建筑的基本方面保持联系的方式,并以新的见解和新的视角来处理它们。

尽管关于这一主题的理论和研究很重要,但结合技术的实践仍处于早期阶段,几乎总是基于小规模的原型。尽管如此,这些对我们的学科仍有很大价值。来自FAU-USP的Scheeren和Sperling以位于巴拉圭亚松森的大学研究实验室FabLab CIDI建造的Parabrick装置为例,探讨了“多元工艺”这一主题。砖是巴拉圭建筑中最常见的原材料,因为非常容易获得,而且由于索拉诺-贝尼特斯的伟大作品,砖在建筑领域很受欢迎。考虑到这一点,FabLab CIDI创建了一个设备,可以指导不同的砖石结合和模式的建设,从而协助手工劳动。它是用数字切割的木片制成,在施工现场轻松组装,类似于2018年在中国深圳城市与建筑双年展(UABB)上展出的CeramicINformation展馆的制造过程。

These are just two examples of many new initiatives that have been combining handcraft techniques and digital technology. This move seems to highlight a strange contradiction in the world (and in architecture) today. Because digital tools make everything more accessible and more alike, there is a persistent desire to express the uniqueness of each place, each community, each architect. In this sense, the connection between these two worlds, digital and vernacular, is an alternative between systematic replication and unique craftsmanship.
Some say that digital fabrication, when applied to architecture, is a kind of "return to materiality," emphasizing materials and techniques instead of intellectual knowledge, especially when it comes to specific machinery that is becoming more available in universities. However, it is worth noting that this is not just a technological update, simply a new tool, but an important opportunity to rethink how we make architecture and to incorporate principles of environmental and social sustainability.
In this context, a strategy called "digital vernacular" emerges, combining principles of traditional architecture and current digital technology in an effort to make contemporary design more affordable and innovative. According to Stevens and Nelson, authors of the book Digital Vernacular: Architectural Principles, Tools, and Processes, constantly returning to one's origins is a way to stay connected to fundamental aspects of architecture and to address them with fresh insights and new perspectives.
Despite the importance of theory and research on this topic, the practice of combining techniques is still in its early stages, almost always based on small-scale prototypes, of great value to our discipline, nevertheless. Scheeren and Sperling, from FAU-USP, address the theme "hybrid craftsmanship" with the example of the Parabrick device built by the FabLab CIDI, a university research lab in Asuncion, Paraguay. Brick is one of the most common raw materials in Paraguayan architecture because it is very easy to obtain when it comes to self-building, and because of its popularity in the field of architecture thanks to the great work of Solano Benítez. With this in mind, the FabLab CIDI created a device that can assist in manual labor by providing support to guide the construction of different masonry bonds and patterns. It is made with digitally cut wood pieces that can be easily assembled on the construction site. This process is similar to the CeramicINformation Pavilion exhibited in 2018 at the Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism and Architecture (UABB) in Shenzhen, China.

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第4张图片

© Christian J. Lange

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第5张图片

© Christian J. Lange


前面提到的书中还包括另一个有趣的结合了数字制造和手工工艺的砖雕作品的例子,它在地球的另一端——印度。劳伦斯技术大学的FabLab和新德里建筑师Ayodh Kamath之间的合作产生了一个激光切割模具系统,使用当地采购的粘土塑造砖块。通过参数化软件,每块砖在预设的位置进行调整和定制,以创造出17世纪英国烟囱特有的曲折线条。当地的石匠通过使用计算机生成的测量结果放置每个块状物来建造穹顶。在工匠们建造的同时,还使用数控机器在砖块上开孔,以保证光线和通风。

2010年,德国设计师Markus Kayser更进一步,在埃及的沙漠中测试了第一个太阳能烧结机。Kayser利用沙漠中丰富的阳光和沙子来融化二氧化硅,创造出一种类似玻璃的固体材料。这种通过加热过程将粉末状物质转化为固体形式的过程被称为烧结。这个实验最终成为一种全新的制造和3D打印方法的基础,多年之后,它被命名为D型工艺。沙子与粘合剂发生化学反应,形成一种砂岩材料。D形部件与钢筋混凝土相比具有相对较高的抗张力。打印机被放置在一个6米乘6米的框架内,目标是在未来可以制造全尺寸的建筑。

这些例子表明,我们可以使用泥土、沙子或任何其他自然材料,在新技术和当地技术之间建立联系。它们证明了我们不必为了使用现代技术而牺牲乡土工艺,反之亦然,强调两者之间的平衡似乎是迈向更可持续建筑业的方向。

The aforementioned book also includes another interesting example of brickwork that combines digital fabrication and handmade processes, but on the other side of the globe, in India. A collaboration between the FabLab at Lawrence Technological University and New Delhi architect Ayodh Kamath resulted in a system of laser-cut molds used to shape blocks using locally sourced clay. Through parametric software, each block is adjusted and customized in a preset position to create the twists and turns characteristic of the chimneys in 17th century England. Local masons built the dome by placing each block using computer-generated measurements. While the craftsmen were building it, a CNC machine was used to create holes in the bricks to allow light and ventilation.
In 2010, German designer Markus Kayser took one step further and tested his first Solar Sinter in the deserts of Egypt. Kayser took advantage of the abundant supplies of sun and sand found in the deserts to melt the silica and create a solid glass-like material. This process of converting a powdery substance via a heating process into a solid form is known as sintering. This experiment eventually served as the basis for an entirely new method of fabrication and 3D printing so much so that, years later, it was named the D-Shape process. The sand chemically reacts with a binder to form a sandstone material. D-Shape components have relatively high tension resistance and are compared to reinforced concrete. The printer sits in a 6m by 6m frame and the goal is to create full-scale buildings in the future.
These examples show that we can use earth, sand, or any other natural material to create a connection between new technology and local techniques. They prove that we don't have to sacrifice vernacular crafts to use modern technology, or vice versa, emphasizing that a balance between the two seems to be the way forward towards a more sustainable building industry.

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第6张图片

© Barak Pelman

虽然这些都是小规模的举措,但一旦我们克服了今天仍然面临的许多技术障碍,它们将为未来具有更复杂的解决方案的项目铺平道路。由于这些技术仍处于萌芽阶段,大学实验室在模型的开发中发挥着重要作用。上面提到的大多数例子都是由一个学术团队开发的原型,该团队成为负责将科学环境中可用的数字技术与本土流行文化相结合。而这似乎正是我们可以从这些实验中学习到的最有价值的经验,观察和学习周围环境,利用技术来滋养和保护本土特性,将创造力和文化相结合,这可能是建筑的未来。

Although these are small-scale initiatives, they will pave the way for future projects with more sophisticated and complex solutions once we have overcome the many technical obstacles that we still face today. Since these techniques are still in an incipient stage, university laboratories play an important role in the development of the models. Most of the examples mentioned above are prototypes developed by an academic team that becomes responsible for bringing together the digital technology available in the scientific environment with the popular culture of the communities. And this seems to be, precisely, the most valuable lesson we can learn from these experiments, the sensibility to observe and learn from the surroundings, using technology to nourish and preserve the community's identity, combining creativity and culture. This may be the future of architecture.

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第7张图片

Robotic Collaboration. Image Courtesy of ETH Zurich

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第8张图片

Growroom. Image © Niklas Vindelev

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第9张图片

© Christian J. Lange

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第10张图片

© Christian J. Lange

可持续建筑的未来:创新技术与本土特征并行第11张图片

© Yifat Zailer


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