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美国影艺学院博物馆(AMMP),由伦佐·皮亚诺建筑事务所(RPBW)设计,就像科幻电影中呈现的场景一样,博物馆由一个庞大的混凝土块和一个直径150英尺的玻璃球体构成,而玻璃球体作为建筑的一部分,徘徊在混凝土建筑旁,使得建筑整体上显得既沉重又轻盈。显然,这不是一个普通的增建项目,建筑师伦佐·皮亚诺通过“造梦星球”的场景设定很好的致敬好莱坞影艺行业,无论是艺术形式还是技术成就,都是传统与现代的完美结合。

Like a set from a sci-fi movie, a monumental concrete-and-glass sphere—150 feet in diameter and appearing simultaneously weighty and buoyant—hovers beside the main wing of L.A.’s new Academy Museum of Motion Pictures (AMMP). It’s clearly no ordinary building addition. And on that fanciful note, architect Renzo Piano sets the scene for this homage to Hollywood’s movie industry—its on-screen and backstage artistry and technological feats—from vintage through cutting-edge.

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第1张图片

Photo © Iwan Baan

博物馆整体耗资4.82亿美元,于今年9月30日开放,是美国电影艺术与科学学院的第一座博物馆。场地坐落于洛杉矶市中心威尔希尔街角地标建筑五月百货公司所在地,建筑占地面积约为2.8公顷,由两座建筑构成:一座是南面翻新扩建的“五月公司大楼”,如今改名“萨班大楼”;另一座是北面新建球形剧院,在新与旧的交融中孕育无限可能。“五月百货公司”由阿尔伯特·马丁设计,是洛杉矶历史文化纪念碑,也是现代流线型建筑的典型代表,其独特之处在于其镶嵌着金色马赛克的圆柱形体量,位于“奇迹大道”的街角处并且临近洛杉矶艺术博物馆(LACMA),极具标志性。此次AMMP与RPBW的合作,对这座20世纪30年代的建筑进行了改造,在新设计了球形附加部分(1000座的大卫·格芬Geffen剧院)的同时还保留了许多原始建筑特征。

The $482 million complex, which opened on September 30, is the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science’s first museum. For this venue, the organization procured an existing five-story landmark—the 1939 former May Company department store—along with the adjacent parcel, both on a 55-year lease from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), which had acquired the property in 1994. Now called the Saban Building, the May store, designed by Albert C. Martin, Sr., is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument—and a prime example of Streamline Moderne architecture—distinctive for its gold mosaic-clad cylindrical volume on a prominent corner of “Miracle Mile,” along Wilshire Boulevard, right next door to LACMA. Here AMMP engaged Renzo Piano Building Workshop (RPBW) to adapt the 1930s building, restoring many original features while creating the spherical addition for the state-of-the-art, 1,000-seat David Geffen Theater.

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第2张图片

Photo © Iwan Baan

新建的球形建筑通过三座封闭的廊桥与历史建筑相联系。正如RPBW项目建筑师乔纳森·琼斯说:“球体的设计理念旨在创造一个超凡脱俗的物体,就像电影中有传送功能的时空舱一样。”RPBW的合伙人路易吉·普里亚诺解释说:“球体的大部分都悬浮在步行广场上,就好像电影中一艘悬浮在地面上,准备起飞的飞船。”

That globe connects to the historic building via three enclosed bridges. “The idea of the sphere,” says RPBW project architect Jonathan Jones, “was to create an otherworldly object that transports you, as movies do.” With most of its form hovering above a pedestrian plaza, the orb was envisioned, explains RPBW partner Luigi Priano, “almost like a spaceship—levitating above the ground, as if ready to take off as soon as the movie starts.”

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第3张图片

Photos © Iwan Baan

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第4张图片

Photos © Iwan Baan

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第5张图片

Photos © Iwan Baan


球体由混凝土浇筑而成,被搁在四个装有隔震器的厚重基座上,一个透明的钢框架玻璃壳从屋顶露台拱起,使得球体的顶部在视觉上消失了。甚至是剧院外部的钢制应急楼梯也会让人联想到火箭发射台的脚手架和楼梯连接装置。

4.5万平方英尺的球体和25万平方英尺的萨班大楼之间形成了新旧建筑分隔区,打开了室外公共空间和连接洛杉矶艺术博物馆(LACMA)的通道,也延伸了历史建筑的轴线,伦佐·皮亚诺早期为LACMA设计的雷斯尼克Resnick展馆和布罗德Broad当代艺术博物馆也紧邻该场地。这段分隔区也使得历史建筑结构背面完全可见,由此形成现在的主入口立面。伦佐·皮亚诺建筑事务所(RPBW)拆除了1939年后增建的部分,修复了小阳台,清理并更换了原有的立面石雕。而新的主入口广场被打造成一个休闲性的聚集空间,即使是在巨大球体的阴影下,垂直压缩的空间也会有点畏缩和压抑的气氛,不禁让人联想起希腊神话中服苦役的大力神Atlas,背负着整个世界的重量。
  
Cast in concrete and resting on four hefty plinths containing seismic base isolators, the orb visually dematerializes at its top, where a diaphanous steel-framed glass shell arches over a rooftop terrace. Even the theater’s external steel emergency stairs recall the scaffolding and stairway hookups of a rocket launchpad.
The separation between the 45,000-square-foot globe and 250,000-square-foot Saban Building distinguishes old from new, while opening up public outdoor space and pathways that connect to LACMA’s campus, extending its axes. (Two earlier buildings by Renzo Piano—LACMA’s Resnick Pavilion and Broad Contemporary Art Museum—are adjacent to AMMP’s site.) The spacing also makes the historic structure fully visible from the back, now a main entrance facade. There RPBW removed post-1939 additions, restored small balconies, and cleaned or replaced original stonework. The new entry plaza is a casual gathering space, with welcome shade where it passes beneath the massive sphere—but that vertically compressed zone also has a slightly daunting and oppressive quality, evoking Atlas bearing the entire weight of the world.

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第6张图片


“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第7张图片


另外,主入口广场与原百货商店的主楼层进行无缝衔接,形成了美国影艺学院博物馆(AMMP)的西德尼·波蒂埃大堂(Sidney Poitier Grand Lobby),其中的一些画廊空间,对不买票的公众开放。尽管带有明显奥斯卡元素内涵的红地毯是该建筑反复出现的主题,但是在机械管道裸露、高高的天花板下,它的楼板和精简的结构柱仍是混凝土的。离大厅不远就是范妮(Fanny)餐厅,这家由沃尔夫冈·帕克(Wolfgang Puck)和比尔·夏特(Bill Chait)冠名的餐厅,是以演员范妮·布莱斯Fanny Brice(芭芭拉·史翠珊在1968年的传记片《妙女郎》中扮演的角色)命名。为了将阳光引入室内,伦佐·皮亚诺建筑事务所(RPBW)打开了百货商店沿着威尔夏大道的橱窗后部。并在保持萨班大厦的整体立面节奏的同时在北立面插入了五层玻璃幕墙。而街角的标志性金色“筒仓”,RPBW将其替换成了20万块来自意大利制造的金箔玻璃碎片。

在内部,沿着建筑背面,建筑师利用玻璃电梯和长自动扶梯创建了一个垂直交通的“海湾”。这些变体设计与巴黎蓬皮杜中心(Pompidou Center)充满活力的外立面自动扶梯“管道”(皮亚诺与理查德·罗杰斯Richard Rogers在1977年设计的)相比,可能看起来平淡无奇,但它们成功地构成了一个易识别、易发现的垂直交通空间。

Still, the piazza flows seamlessly into the former department store’s vast main level, now AMMP’s Sidney Poitier Grand Lobby, which includes some gallery space and is open to the nonticketed public. Beneath a high ceiling with exposed mechanicals, its floors and stripped-down structural columns are concrete—though red carpet, with its obvious Oscars connotations, is a recurrent theme elsewhere in the building. Just off the lobby is Fanny’s, a Wolfgang Puck–Bill Chait restaurant named for performer Fanny Brice (Barbra Streisand’s role in the 1968 biopic Funny Girl). Ushering daylight into the interiors, RPBW opened the backs of the department store vitrines along Wilshire Boulevard and inserted five stories of glazed curtain wall into Saban’s north elevation, while maintaining its overall rhythms. For the signature gold “silo” anchoring the street corner, RPBW replaced 200,000 of its gold-leafed glass tesserae, sourced from the original Italian manufacturer.
Inside, along the rear elevation, the architects created a vertical circulation bay with glass elevators and long escalators. Compared with the dynamic facade-mounted escalator “tubes” at Paris’s Pompidou Center (which Piano created with Richard Rogers in 1977), these versions may seem banal, but they succeed in forming a legible and easy-to-find circulation spine.

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第8张图片

Photos © Iwan Baan

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第9张图片

Photos © Joshua White/JW Pictures


这些画廊主要分布在三层楼中,涵盖了从服装、声音、脚本、灯光、音乐、布景到电影制作的技术和科学所有领域,甚至延伸到电影行业历史上较为黑暗的一面(比如它在麦卡锡时代或种族排斥主义中所扮演的角色)。展览的核心藏品包含了《绿野仙踪》中的红宝石拖鞋和狮子鬃毛,以及来自数十万部电影和视频遗产,其中有5万张电影海报。一条原始的人造大白鲨悬挂在流通的“海湾”上,老式的奥斯卡小金人围绕着发光的金色圆柱内装饰风格的圆形空间。再往下,就是位于萨班大厦地下,拥有288个座位的特德·曼恩(Ted Mann)剧院,游客可以从夹层通过廊桥到达大卫·格芬(Geffen)剧院。

Primarily on three floors, the galleries run the gamut from costuming, sound, scripting, lighting, music, and sets to the mechanics and science of moviemaking—even extending into darker aspects of the industry’s history (such as its role in the McCarthy era or in racial exclusionism). WHY was the exhibition designer for the core collection, which includes the Wizard of Oz’s ruby slippers and lion’s mane, and draws from hundreds of thousands of film and video assets, with 50,000 movie posters among its holdings. An original manmade Jaws shark hangs over the circulation bay, and vintage Oscar statuettes ring a glowing Deco-styled circular space within the building’s gold cylinder. While the 288-seat Ted Mann Theater is below grade in the Saban Building, visitors reach the Geffen by bridge from the mezzanine level.

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第10张图片

Photos © Iwan Baan

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第11张图片

Photos © Iwan Baan


进入球体的过程是空间从压缩到急剧膨胀的变化,铺着红地毯的楼梯沿着球体的曲线在内外部的外壳之间蜿蜒,当到达33700平方英尺的圆顶剧院,立刻被头顶上的星星一样的光点照亮。沿弧形配置的阶梯式座椅与深红色的地毯相匹配,甚至66英尺宽的屏幕也存在微妙的曲线。该会场布置了一个现场表演的剧场网格,可以通过多种形式播放电影,并且它的舞台可以容纳60人的管弦乐队。但这个壮观的空间未来不会成为奥斯卡颁奖典礼场地,因为需要比较多的座位容量。

The ascent into the sphere rises from compression to dramatic expansion as its red-carpeted stairs wind between an inner and outer shell, following the orb’s curve, to reach the domed, darkened, 33,700-square-foot theater, illuminated by points of light like stars overhead. The raked seating, matching the carpet’s crimson, also has an arcing configuration, and even the 66-foot-wide screen subtly curves. The venue, which has a theatrical grid for live performance, can present films in many formats, from nitrate to laser projection, and its stage accommodates a 60-piece orchestra. (But this spectacular space will not be home to future Oscars ceremonies, which require a much greater seating capacity.)

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第12张图片

Photo © Iwan Baan

穿过萨班大厦五楼的画廊和电影院可以到达球体的屋顶平台。在一个大型活动空间的对面,一座桥延伸到8600平方英尺的杜比家庭露台。在那里,建筑空间序列将以包罗万象的舞台和玻璃穹顶构成的全景达到高潮,正在这时,好莱坞的标志也会去出现在远处。

The roof deck above it is accessed from the Saban Building’s fifth floor, where the journey through the galleries and moviedom finally leads. Across from a large event space, a bridge extends to the sphere-topping, 8,600-square-foot Dolby Family Terrace. There the architectural choreography culminates with the overarching proscenium-like glass canopy framing a panoramic view—and, right on cue, the Hollywood sign appears in the distance.

“造梦星球”——伦佐·皮亚诺美国影艺学院博物馆第13张图片


信息

建筑师:Renzo Piano Building Workshop — Renzo Piano, Mark Carroll, Luigi Priano, Daniel Hammerman, Jonathan Jones, Kerry Joyce, Paolo Pelanda
执行建筑师:Gensler — David Pakshong, Richard Stoner, Wendi Gilbert, David Shiwotsuka, Arpy Hatzikian, Andrew Robertson, Philip Vriend, Scott Severson, Youngsoo Kwon, Timothy Taylor, Brianna Seabron, Elizabeth Wendell, Greg Kromhout, Robyn Bisbee, Jessica Tracey, Ashi McMullin
顾问:Buro Happold (structural, m/e/p, lighting), Knippers Helbig (facade), KPFF Consulting Engineers (civil), Shannon & Wilson (geotechnical), Paratus Group (project manager), Atlelier Ten (LEED), WHY (exhibition design), LRM Landscape Architects
总承包商:MATT Construction
客户:Academy Museum of Motion Pictures
所有者:Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
尺寸:30万平方英尺
项目成本:4.82亿美元
竣工日期:2021年9月

玻璃:Permasteelisa, Walters & Wolf, Giroux Glass
圆顶遮阳帘:Draper
钢:Plas-Tal, Washington Iron
剧院座位:Poltrona Frau, Lino Sonego
运输:Schindler, Custom Cabs
金属门:Seeley
顶板和外部铺砌:Trademark
地毯和地板覆盖物:Rouse Company

Credits
Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop — Renzo Piano, Mark Carroll, Luigi Priano, Daniel Hammerman, Jonathan Jones, Kerry Joyce, Paolo Pelanda
Executive Architect: Gensler — David Pakshong, Richard Stoner, Wendi Gilbert, David Shiwotsuka, Arpy Hatzikian, Andrew Robertson, Philip Vriend, Scott Severson, Youngsoo Kwon, Timothy Taylor, Brianna Seabron, Elizabeth Wendell, Greg Kromhout, Robyn Bisbee, Jessica Tracey, Ashi McMullin
Consultants: Buro Happold (structural, m/e/p, lighting), Knippers Helbig (facade), KPFF Consulting Engineers (civil), Shannon & Wilson (geotechnical), Paratus Group (project manager), Atlelier Ten (LEED), WHY (exhibition design), LRM Landscape Architects

General Contractor: MATT Construction
Client: Academy Museum of Motion Pictures
Owner: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Size: 300,000 square feet
Project Cost: $482 million
Completion Date: September 2021

Sources
Glazing: Permasteelisa, Walters & Wolf, Giroux Glass
Dome Shades: Draper
Steel: Plas-Tal, Washington Iron
Theater Seating: Poltrona Frau, Lino Sonego
Conveyance: Schindler, Custom Cabs
Metal Doors: Seeley

Topping Slabs & Exterior Paving: Trademark
Carpet & Floor Coverings: Rouse Company

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