网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第1张图片

Image © Jordi García via EU Mies

不再浪费:将循环经济纳入建筑项目的10种方法
No More Waste: 10 Ways to Incorporate the Circular Economy into an Architectural Project

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

循环经济是一种旨在消除浪费和持续使用资源的经济体系。循环经济超越了目前的“获取-制造-浪费”的采掘工业模式,旨在重新定义增长,注重全社会的积极效益。它需要逐步将经济活动与有限资源的消耗脱钩,并将废物从系统中抽离出来,在可再生能源过渡的基础上,循环模式建立了经济、自然和社会资本。

它基于三个原则,即

  • 抽离出废物和污染;
  • 保持产品和材料的使用;
  • 建立再生自然系统。

A circular economy is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste and the continual use of resources. Looking beyond the current take-make-waste extractive industrial model, a circular economy aims to redefine growth, focusing on positive society-wide benefits. It entails gradually decoupling economic activity from the consumption of finite resources and designing waste out of the system. Underpinned by a transition to renewable energy sources, the circular model builds economic, natural, and social capital.

It is based on three principles:
·Design out waste and pollution.
·Keep products and materials in use.
·Regenerate natural systems.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第2张图片

Image via Wikimedia Commons

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第3张图片

Image via Wikimedia Commons


建筑和制造企业可以通过多种方式将循环经济的思想融入生产和消费领域。

1. 将玻璃用作外部装饰

随着可持续设计的重点继续从建筑效率这一核心话题转移到其他两个支柱上,即充分性和一致性,“翻新”这个话题成为了焦点。谈到玻璃,Saint-Gobain等行业领导者正在不断开发新的和创新的方法来思考材料的潜力和使用前景,更新已经过时的系统。只需将旧的玻璃饰面系统换成新的、可持续的、高效的系统,就能使建筑项目的生态足迹和能源效率等级发生巨大变化。

例如,法国建筑公司Lacaton & Vassal、Frédéric Druot和Christophe Hutin于2019年对波尔多和巴黎的社会住房进行的改造,表明这一过程的影响非常强大和持久。建筑师们解释说:“这种改造给所有的住宅带来了新的空间和生活质量,通过精确地设计应该保留的部分以及必须补充的缺失部分,Saint-Gobain的Glassolutions制造商为全玻璃的外部电梯提供玻璃材料。”

There are several ways that companies within the building and manufacturing industries can incorporate ideas of circular economy thinking into the fields of production and consumption.

1. The Use of Glass as an Exterior Finish
As the focus of sustainable design continues to shift heavily from the core topic of the efficiency of buildings to the other two pillars of the discussion: sufficiency and consistency, the conversation of “renovation” comes to the forefront. When it comes to glass, industry leaders such as Saint-Gobain are constantly developing new and innovative ways to think about the material's potentials and prospective usage, updating systems that have become outdated. Simply swapping old glass-finish systems with new, sustainable, and efficient ones can make a huge difference in an architectural project's ecological footprint and energy efficiency rating.
For example, the 2019 transformation of social housing in both Bordeaux and Paris by French architectural firms Lacaton & Vassal, Frédéric Druot, and Christophe Hutin show how powerful and lasting the effects of this process can be. The architects explain that “the transformation gives to all dwellings new qualities of space and living, by inventorying very precisely the existing qualities that should be preserved, and what is missing that must be supplemented.” Saint-Gobain's Glassolutions manufacturers in Coutras supplied the glass for the fully glazed external elevators.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第4张图片

Image © Jordi García via EU Mies

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第5张图片

Image © Jordi García via EU Mies


2. 再制造

再制造也被称为“增值制造”,指的是使用重复使用的、经过修理的和新的部件组合,按照原制造产品的规格重新制造产品。它需要修复或替换破旧或过时的部件和模块。现在许多公司开始关注再制造的想法,特别是在汽车和建筑行业,具有大型制造系统的机器和材料可以被修复和重新使用,以减少对环境的影响。例如,再制造的木材可以被用于建筑项目中的框架、精加工和其他部件。

2. Remanufacturing
Remanufacturing - also known as "value-added manufacturing" refers to the rebuilding of a product to the specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired, and new parts. It requires the repair or replacement of worn-out or obsolete components and modules. Many companies are beginning to look towards ideas of remanufacturing, especially in the automotive and construction industries where machinery and material with large manufacturing systems can be salvaged and re-used in order to reduce environmental impact. For example, remanufactured wood can easily be used in the contexts of both framing, finishing, and other value-added operations within a built project.



3. 从摇篮到摇篮的制造

摇篮到摇篮设计(也被称为2CC2、C2C、摇篮到摇篮或再生设计)是一种产品和系统设计的仿生方法,它以大自然的过程作为人类工业的模型,其中材料被视为健康、安全循环的营养。建筑师William McDonough在其2002年出版的《从摇篮到摇篮》一书中对这一理念进行了深入探讨,并将其推向了前沿,重塑了我们制造的方式。从那时起,McDonough的C2C思想在建筑和设计领域占据了重要地位。

3. Cradle-to-Cradle Fabrication
Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as 2CC2, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industries on nature's processes, where materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. The idea was deeply explored and brought to the forefront by architect William McDonough in his 2002 book "Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things." Since then, McDonough's ideas of C2C have taken a stronghold within areas of building and design ethics at large.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第6张图片

Image via Wikimedia Commons

地板公司Desso一直是“从摇篮到摇篮”方法的先驱者。该公司继续围绕循环经济原则进行创新,开发了回收计划和可回收纱线的产品,这些纱线可以与背衬分离并反复使用。通过在地毯生产的每个阶段使用100%的可再生水电,并为他们的地毯开发生物降解材料基础,如玉米副产品和竹纱,Desso是C2C原则在建筑设计领域实际应用的典范。

4. 玻璃棉保温材料

玻璃棉是一种由微小的玻璃纤维制成的绝缘材料,使用粘合剂排列成类似羊毛的纹理。这个过程在玻璃之间捕获了许多小的气穴,这些小的气穴形成了高隔热性能。玻璃棉以卷状或板状形式生产,具有不同的热力和机械性能。例如,Saint-Gobain的ISOVER公司生产的玻璃棉保温材料既节能又具有可持续性。

ISOVER玻璃棉使用了高比例的回收玻璃,比例高达70%(平均大于50%),并且可以完全回收利用,每个保温性能的二氧化碳含量非常低。其他优点包括:由于产品的高压缩性而减少了包装量,产品的轻质性使其能够很好地适应轻质结构,易于拆卸,因为安装在系统中无需胶水,以及在多个国家提供回收服务。

Flooring company Desso has been one of the pioneers of the Cradle to Cradle approach. The company continues to innovate around circular economy principles, developing take-back programs and products with recyclable yarn that can be separated from the backing and used over and over again. By using 100% renewable hydropower electricity at every stage of carpet manufacturing, as well as working on developing bio-degradable material bases for their carpets such as corn by-products and bamboo yarn, Desso is a great example of the practical application of C2C principles in architectural design.

4. Glass Wool Insulation
Glass wool is an insulating material made from minuscule fibers of glass, arranged using a binder into a texture similar to wool. The process traps many small pockets of air between the glass, and these small air pockets result in high thermal insulation properties. Glass wool is produced in rolls or in slabs, with different thermal and mechanical properties. Saint-Gobain's ISOVER, for example, produces glass wool insulation which is both energy efficient and sustainable.
ISOVER glass wool uses a high percentage of recycled glass - up to 70% (and on average greater than 50%), and is fully recyclable with a very low CO2 per insulation performance. Other of its benefits include a reduced volume of packaging due to the high product compression, the lightweight nature of the product which allows it to fit very well into lightweight constructions, easy dismantling (installation in systems without glue), and recycling services offered in several countries.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第7张图片

Image Courtesy of Saint-Gobain

Stefano Boeri Architetti的2009年适应性再利用会议厅“海洋之家”是一个注重可持续性的案例,使用了这种玻璃棉来满足排放的要求。

Stefano Boeri Architetti's 2009 adaptive reuse conference hall, "House of the Sea" is an example of a sustainability-focused project that uses this glass wool to meet emissions output requirements.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第8张图片

Image © Iwan Baan

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第9张图片

Image © Iwan Baan


5. 按劳取酬

近年来出现了一些新的合作商业模式,利用许多行业中可能存在的产能过剩问题。考虑到这些想法,Thomas Rau和飞利浦开发的一个项目尝试从一开始就通过将光能作为一种服务出售,来应对产能过剩。“按勒克斯(LUX)付费"的概念包括为工作场所和房间提供员工在执行特定任务时所需的精确光量,包括维护费用。每当照明需要改变时,飞利浦可以根据客户的需求进一步调整现有的系统,或者干脆通过LightRec(飞利浦负责重新使用照明部件的合作伙伴)回收其材料并进行再利用。有效的系统管理使LED安装后的总能耗降低了35%-55%,同时通过飞利浦的优化能再降低20%。

6. 家具的再使用

仅在美国,每年就有1500万吨的家具被浪费,只有2%被回收再利用。同时,在像纽约这样的城市,每年有25万人口迁入或迁出。二手家具市场的实际潜力被估计为每年100亿美元。Alpay Koralturk在2014年成立了Furnishare(现在的Kaiyo),在经历了一系列的搬家之后,每次都不得不重新出售和购买家具。

厌倦了这种线性生产和消费模式造成的家具浪费和质量低劣,Koralturk为Kaiyo模式申请了专利,其中的一些组件围绕着一个中心概念:让高质量的家具继续使用,从而为以前的使用者创造额外的价值,为未来的买家提供更灵活的使用选择。该模式为人们提供了一个机会,使累赘或未充分利用的资产货币化,而不是简单地处置它,这个过程本身可能会花费金钱。当物品在租赁期结束后被送回Kaiyo时,它们会被修理、清洁,并重新投入市场。

5. Pay-Per-Lux
A number of new collaborative business models have emerged in recent years that aim to take advantage of the overcapacity that can be found in many industries. With these ideas in mind, a project developed between Thomas Rau and Philips sought to design out overcapacity from the start by selling light as a service. The 'Pay per Lux' concept consists of providing the exact amount of light for workspaces and rooms that employees need when using them for specific tasks -with maintenance costs included. Whenever the lighting needs to change, Philips can either adapt the existing system further to the client's wishes or simply reclaim its materials and recycle them via LightRec (Philips' partner responsible for the re-use of lighting components). Effective systems management resulted in a total energy reduction of 55% – 35% as a result of the LED installation, as well as another 20% through Philips' optimization process.

6. Furniture Re-Usability
In the United States alone, 15 million tonnes of furniture is wasted annually, and only 2% is recovered for recycling. At the same time, each year in a city like New York, a quarter of a million people either move in or move out. The actual potential in the used furniture market has been estimated at $10 billion per year. Alpay Koralturk set up Furnishare (now Kaiyo) in 2014, after a series of frustrating moves, having to sell and buy furniture each time.
Tired of the waste and cheap quality of furniture caused by this linear production and consumption model, Koralturk patented the Kaiyo model in which a number of components revolve around a central concept: to keep high-quality furniture in use, thereby creating additional value for previous owners and more flexible access options for future buyers. The model gives people a chance to monetize a burdensome or underutilized asset rather than simply disposing of it, a process that might itself cost money. When items are returned to Kaiyo after the lease period they are repaired, cleaned, and re-introduced into the market.



7. 模块化

对办公家具的需求正在迅速增长,到2024年,该行业的规模估计将达到1000亿美元(USD)。制造办公家具需要大量的材料和能源,而这些宝贵的资源有80-90%在短暂的使用期后就会消失。荷兰工作空间设计公司Ahrend为他们的客户提供家具服务(FAAS),客户按月支付费用,当他们不再需要家具时,就将其归还。

“家具服务”是一种租赁形式。这意味着Ahrend仍然是家具的所有者,而你只需在使用产品期间付款。因此,你可以把营运资金用于核心活动,并且不会支付太多,因为你只需要支付你正在使用的东西。" Ahrend前高级副总裁Peter Veer说。

8. 后消费玻璃混凝土的可能性

玻璃纤维混凝土(GRC)材料包括嵌入混凝土基体中的高强度、耐碱的玻璃纤维。这些纤维作为主要的承载部件,而周围的基体使它们保持在一定位置,并在纤维之间传递载荷。纤维和基体都善于保持其物理和化学特性,将这些特性结合起来,创造出一种高性能复合材料。这与传统的预制混凝土不同,后者使用钢作为主要的承载元素。虽然这在中期内效果不错,但我们都知道,钢材有腐蚀的倾向,在几十年内会导致潜在的结构问题,而玻璃纤维不会生锈。

可持续建筑和循环经济的趋势在当前的建筑环境中产生了巨大的影响,而新一代的轻质GRC无疑是这一运动的关键构件。最近的测试表明,GRC现在被视为一种节能的建筑材料,能够达到BREEAM A+的材料等级。Rieder集团是一家奥地利公司,提供使用原始和天然材料的GRC产品。这些由玻璃纤维增强混凝土制成的面板,不燃烧,可持续,而且耐用。它们可以明显地或隐蔽地固定在金属底层结构上,并可以用天然涂料进行整体染色。

7. Modularity
The demand for office furniture is growing rapidly - by 2024 the size of the industry will be estimated at 100 billion dollars (USD). Manufacturing office furniture requires a lot of materials and energy, and 80-90% of these valuable resources are lost after a short use period. Ahrend, a Dutch workspace design company, offers their customers furniture-as-a-service (FAAS) where customers pay a monthly fee and return the furniture when they no longer need it.
"Furniture as a Service is a subscription in the form of an operational lease. This means Ahrend remains the owner of the furniture and you only pay for the period you use the product. So you keep your working capital available for your core activity and never pay too much because you only pay what you are using," says Ahrend former Senior Vice President Peter Veer.

8. The Possibilities of Post-Consumer Glass Concrete
Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) material comprises high-strength, alkali-resistant glass fibers which are embedded into a concrete matrix. These fibers act as the main load-carrying component, while the surrounding matrix keeps them in position, and transfers loads between the fibers. Both the fibers and matrix are good at retaining their physical and chemical identities, combining these properties to create a high-performance composite. This differs from traditional pre-cast concrete, which uses steel as the main load-carrying element. While this works well in the medium term, we all know that steel has a tendency to corrode, leading to potential structural issues within a couple of decades. Glass fibers do not rust.
The trend towards sustainable building and the circular economy is a huge influence within the current climate of architecture – and the new generation of lightweight GRC is definitely a key building block of this movement. Recent tests show that GRC is now seen as an energy-efficient building material that is capable of achieving a BREEAM A+ material rating. The Rieder Group is an Austrian company that offers GRC products using raw and natural materials. The panels made of glass-fiber reinforced concrete, are non-combustible, sustainable, and durable. They can be fastened visibly or concealed onto a metal substructure, and dyed throughout with natural color pigments.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第10张图片

Image Courtesy of Archdaily

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第11张图片

Image Courtesy of Archdaily


9. 圆形建筑

“从摇篮到摇篮”的先驱William McDonough说:“我们总有把材料放错地方的问题。”这句话被大量引用。事实上,产品中的大部分资源只是被“使用”,而不是被“用完”。材料本身仍然存在,但要么难以收集和回收,要么无法以一种可行的方式再利用。

Welpeloo别墅是由Superuse工作室于2005年设计和建造的房屋和艺术工作室。虽然这栋房子在建筑上非常引人注目,但它的创作有两个特点使它特别值得注意。首先,房子60%的材料是由从当地回收的,Superuse采用了一种新颖而又方便的策略来寻找这种原料。Superuse工作室的建筑师兼研究主管Jan Jongert解释说:“我们与那些能够接触到废旧材料流的人进行了合作,而谷歌地球帮助我们确定工业区的废旧库存。”

9. Circular Building
“We have a materials in the wrong place problem” is a heavily-quoted line from Cradle to Cradle pioneer William McDonough. Indeed, the majority of the resources found in products are simply ‘used’, rather than being ‘used up'. The materials themselves are still out there, but frequently are either difficult to collect and recover, or can’t be aggregated in a way that makes their collection viable.
Villa Welpeloo is a house and art studio designed and constructed in 2005 by Superuse Studios. Whilst the house is certainly architecturally striking, there are two features of its creation that make it especially noteworthy. Firstly, 60% of the house is made up of materials salvaged from the local area, and Superuse employed a novel yet accessible strategy for finding this feedstock. “We spoke to people who have access to waste materials flows – Google Earth helps us to identify waste stock in industrial zones", explains Jan Jongert, architect and Head of Research at Superuse Studios.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第12张图片

Image Courtesy of Superuse Studios

钢材的来源是以前用于纺织生产的机器,这是房屋所在的荷兰恩斯赫德地区曾经的一个主要产业。外墙使用的木材来自于200个损坏的电缆卷轴,这些木材具有统一的尺寸和形状。通常这种木材会被变成刨花板(或者更糟,最终被焚烧),缩短了材料的使用期限。再利用的愿望使设计过程与物质化过程平行进行。改变材料性能的 "Superuse" 策略不仅被作为公司本身的名称,而且在其180个项目中,约有90%的项目都在研究和使用这个策略。

Steel was sourced from machinery previously used in textile production, a once-prominent industry in the Enschede region of the Netherlands, where the house is located. The wood used in the facade was taken from 200 damaged cable reels, which gave pieces of uniform size and shape. This wood would traditionally be turned into particleboard (or worse, end up incinerated) effectively shortcutting the usefulness of the material. The desire to salvage also led to the design process being conducted in parallel with the materialization process. The "Superuse" strategy of changing a material’s performance has not only been adopted as the name of the firm itself but has also been researched and used on around 90% of its 180 projects.

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第13张图片

Image Courtesy of Superuse Studios

10. 产品护照

航运业目前特别依赖两种商品——燃料和钢材,其中钢材约占普通集装箱船体积的98%。为了应对钢材和燃料价格的波动,马士基开发了“从摇篮到摇篮的护照”。该护照是航运业的首创,包括一个在线数据库,一个详细的清单,可用于识别和回收船舶的部件,使其达到比以往更高的质量。

因此,材料,包括每艘船的60,000吨钢材,可以被更有效地分类和处理,保持其固有的特性,并在重新出售时获得更好的价格。

由于建筑业严重依赖材料和产品的全球运输,像“C2C护照”这样的系统可以使每个项目从开始到结束的整体过程发生巨大变化。

10. Product Passports
The shipping industry is currently reliant on two commodities in particular – fuel and steel, with steel comprising roughly 98% of the volume of the average container ship. In response to volatility in both steel and fuel prices, Maersk developed a "Cradle to Cradle Passport." The Passport, a first for the shipping industry, comprises an online database to create a detailed inventory that can be used to identify and recycle the ship's components to a higher quality than ever before.
As a result, the materials – including the 60,000 tonnes of steel per ship – can be sorted and processed more effectively, maintaining their inherent properties and hopefully commanding a better price when re-sold.
Since the building industry is heavily reliant on the shipping of materials and products globally, a system such as the "C2C Passport" can make a huge difference in the overall footprint of each project, from start to finish.



建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第14张图片

Image Courtesy of Superuse Studios. Image Courtesy of Archdaily

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第15张图片

Image © Jordi García via EU Mies

建筑领域材料循环使用的原则与方法第16张图片

Image Courtesy of Archdaily


【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (11927 articles)


材料 (220 articles)


循环利用 (3 articles)


玻璃 (2021 articles)