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被动+主动=温馨如家的疗养院第1张图片


Nursing Home Passivhaus / CSO arquitectura

由专筑网小R编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:位于西班牙Camarzana de Tera的一座疗养院建造于2005年,由CSO Arquitectura事务所设计,该项目则是这座疗养院的扩建,这座新建筑已经获得了西班牙被动式认证,也是全球15座被动式认证的建筑之一。

Text description provided by the architects. The project responds to the need to expand a nursing home made by CSO Arquitectura in 2005, located in Camarzana de Tera (Zamora). The new building has become the first Passivhaus-certified geriatric hospital building in Spain, and one of the first fifteen in the world.

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该项目的首要要求是和现在的建筑形成联系,新建筑以旧建筑为基础,旧建筑是一个半地下空间,并且有着一系列院落。这些院落十分开敞,与原有的住宅形成对话,因此这些建筑看起来就消失了,和花园相互融合。

A dialogue with the existing building was the first premise that had to be met in the project. The new building works as a plinth for the old one, a semi-underground residence, with a series of courtyards associated with the uses of the building. These courtyards open and dialogue with the original residence, in such a way that the building disappears, merging with the garden.

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该项目由3个功能区域构成,这些区域由廊道连接在一起,它们朝向南侧。第一个部分主要用于日间活动,其北侧窗户连接着一个温室,一方面是为了改善热环境,另外也是给使用者构成蔬菜种植区。另外两个部分包含有卧室,同样面向南侧,并且有着独立露台,使用者可以进入公共院落。

The program is divided into three programmatic bands tied by a longitudinal corridor, all of them facing south. The first band hosts daytime functions and has a greenhouse attached to the north window, which serves, on the one hand, to improve thermal conditions and, on the other, as a vegetable growing area for the residents. The remaining two bands are made up of bedrooms, also facing south, having their own terrace with access to the common courtyard.

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这座建筑由预制木材框架系统建造而成,这些材料首先是在巴塞罗那的车间制作,然后通过卡车运输到Zamora,然后在现场进行组装,这大大减少了时间成本,也提升了热效益,减少了碳足迹。

The building is constructed using a prefabricated timber frame system. It is initially made in a workshop in Barcelona, it is then moved by truck to Zamora and assembled on-site in a week. This saves costs and time, as well as improving thermal behaviour and reducing the ecological footprint.

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这座建筑就像是一个能源机器,一座零能耗的被动式建筑,它能够产生能源,做到自给自足,并且从旧建筑中获得能源。

The building is conceived as an energy machine, a passive building, with a zero consumption, producing more energy than it consumes, deriving excess energy from the old building.

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其中的策略如下,首先是主动式策略,即18kW光伏太阳能面板、20块太阳能面板、来自热回收的机械通风系统,以及来源于地面热辐射的空调系统。

This low demand is achieved through the following strategies. Active strategies: 18 kW of photovoltaic solar panels, 20 thermal solar panels, mechanical ventilation by means of heat recovery and air conditioning by means of radiant floor heating.

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接下来是被动式策略:立面隔热(0.195 W / m2K)、地面隔热(0.18 W / m2K)、景观屋面隔热(0.195 W / m2K)、三层玻璃木工艺、自然通风、雨水收集系统、太阳能控制体系、就餐区温室,在冬天能够利用北侧的开窗来调节温度,而在夏天能够满足交叉通风。

Passive strategies: facade insulation (0.195 W / m2K), floor insulation (0.18 W / m2K), landscaped roof insulation (0.195 W / m2K), woodwork with triple glass, natural ventilation, rainwater harvesting for irrigation, solar control through porches, a greenhouse in the dining area that tempers the existing air in winter (taking advantage of the window to the north), while allowing cross ventilation in summer.

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该项目的主要目标是让建筑拥有疗养功能,满足使用者的需求,因此这也是需要采用这些策略的原因。

One of the initial objectives of the project was the medicalization of the architecture in order to benefit the daily well-being of the users. That is why two principal actions are followed:

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小型如家般温馨的空间就因此而构成,这不同于大型建筑中普通冰冷的医疗空间,该项目的目的就是让使用者宾至如归,他们甚至可以应用自己的家具,再结合木材和南向的采光,玻璃窗户让自然景观引入到室内,给人温馨的氛围。

Small warm home-like spaces are created, differing from the large common cold hospital-like spaces in this type of building. The goal is for the residents to feel at home (with the possibility of bringing their own furniture), using wood and light with large windows to the south, inviting the nature of the courtyards to the interior using transparencies.

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热回收装置结合过滤器、密封空间,以及能源的改善,让建筑拥有了绝佳的空气品质,减少使用者呼吸道感染的风险。

The installation of heat recuperators together with the filters and the hermeticity of the building, as well as an energy improvement, allows obtaining an optimal air quality for this type of buildings, avoiding respiratory allergies of the users.

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建筑设计:CSO arquitectura
地点:西班牙
类型:疗养建筑/扩建
面积:820 m2
时间:2019年
摄影:David Frutos
制造商:DAIKIN, Porcelanosa, Roi
主创建筑师:Javier de Antón Freile
合作方:José Miguel Asencio; June García, Artur Rodrigues, Nestor Candela
施工方:Javier Vega de Paz
结构计算:Fernando San Hipólito
建造商:Construcciones P. Sánchez Rodríguez S.L.
预制构件:ARQUIMA

HOSPITAL, EXTENSION
CAMARZANA DE TERA, SPAIN
Architects: CSO arquitectura
Area: 820 m2
Year: 2019
Photographs: David Frutos
Manufacturers: DAIKIN, Porcelanosa, Roi
Lead Architect: Javier de Antón Freile
Collaborators: José Miguel Asencio; June García, Artur Rodrigues, Nestor Candela
Builder: Javier Vega de Paz
Structural Calculation: Fernando San Hipólito
Constructor: Construcciones P. Sánchez Rodríguez S.L.
Prefabrication: ARQUIMA

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