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从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第1张图片


From Utopia To Reality: Brasília's 60th Anniversary

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

50年前, Clarice Lispector曾指出,揭开巴西利亚的面纱是多么困难:“两位建筑师并没有想建造精美的建筑,因为这很容易;但他们提出了新奇的概念,却没有解释这到底是什么。”今年,这座首都已然60岁,但仍吸引着学者、学生和其他想要探索的人。为了了解那里的日常生活,我们邀请了六位居住在城市中的建筑和城市领域的专业人员与我们分享他们的愿景,并带来了更多层次的思考,增进对于乌托邦的理解并了解巴西利亚的现状。

下面,我们摘录了以下人士的相关内容:Bloco Arquitetos事务所的创始合伙人Daniel Mangabeira,UnB的校友和ArquitetasinVisíveis事务所的共同创始人Luiza Dias Coelho(inVisible建筑事务所),就职于FAU-UnB的Maribel Aliaga Fuentes(教研人员)以及IPHAN的建筑师和城市规划师Luiz Eduardo Sarmento以及IAB-DF的高级顾问Luia Eduardo Sarmento。

所有的照片由 JoanaFrança摄于巴西首都。

50 years ago Clarice Lispector already pointed out how difficult it was to unveil Brasilia: "the two architects did not think of building beautiful, it would be easy; they raised their amazement, and left the amazement unexplained". This year the capital turned 60, and still remains intriguing for scholars, students, and anyone who allows themselves to explore it better. In order to understand the daily life that exists there, we invited six professionals- in the field of architecture and urbanism - who live in the city, to share their visions with us and bring a few more layers that help to build an interpretation of utopia and reality that Brasília currently represents.
Below, we've compiled excerpts by Daniel Mangabeira, founding partner of Bloco Arquitetos, Gabriela Cascelli Farinasso and Luiza Dias Coelho, alumni of UnB and co-founders of the collective Arquitetas inVisíveis (inVisible Architects), Maribel Aliaga Fuentes, professor and researcher at FAU-UnB , and Luiz Eduardo Sarmento, architect and urban planner at IPHAN and Senior Adviser at IAB-DF, all accompanied by photographs of the Brazilian capital by Joana França.

从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第2张图片


乌托邦可以超越反乌托邦
Daniel Mangabeira——Bloco Arquitetos事务所

巴西利亚和隔离是对立的。这个城市不是为隐蔽的居民而创造,显然也没有为此目的设计城市,但是巴西利亚的Plano Piloto具有一些特殊性,这些特性使隔离成为其对立面。Lucio Costa隶属法国的城市诞生于自由、开放和民主的乌托邦。因此,在封闭隔离时期,纪念这个想象中的真实城市也十分重要。

原有的计划不能实施,但值得纪念的恰恰是许多巴西城市所缺少的内容,即宽敞而自由的公共空间。尽管这些绿色中有许多并非有意的设计,但它们对于居民的健康却至关重要。从这个意义上说,巴西利亚具有巨大的潜力,能让巴西人在离开住所时意识到这座城市缺少什么。Norma Evenson的一篇文章中说到:“巴西利亚的设计中没有任何迹象表明希望将人类作品与自然作品协调起来”。尽管同意这一说法,并且知道Cerrado没有很多的空隙,但是,我们城市中广阔的绿色空间仍需要实现其居住价值。一座公园对健康来说意味着什么?街上为什么要种树?为什么在城市中看到地平线很重要?城市中心空隙的意义是什么?这些是住在这里的人可以轻松回答的问题。巴西的其他城市比以往任何时候都更需要巴西利亚。

May Utopia Overcome Dystopia
by Daniel Mangabeira - Bloco Arquitetos
Brasília and quarantine are antagonistic. This city was not invented for cloistered residents. Obviously no cities were designed for this, but the Plano Piloto de Brasília has particularities that make seclusion the antithesis of what it was meant to be. Lucio Costa's French-affiliated city was born to be free, open, and democratic utopia. The celebration of this imagined and real city, therefore, is essential in times of confinement.
The experimental plan cannot be an example to be followed, but what is celebrated here is precisely what is missing in many Brazilian cities: generous and democratic public spaces. Although many of these lawless green voids are not designed to be useful, they are essential for the well-being of their users. Brasilia, in this sense, has great potential to help Brazilians understand what is missing in their cities when everyone starts to leave their enclosures. Norma Evenson wrote an article in which she stated that "there is nothing in the design of Brasília that indicates a desire to harmonize man's works with those of nature". Despite agreeing with this statement and knowing that the cerrado is not present in its voids - which is a pity - nonetheless, the wide green spaces in our city need to boost the value of non-occupation in other cities. What is the importance of a park for health? Why have trees on the street? Why is seeing the horizon important in a city? What is the relevance of emptiness within an urban center? Simple questions can be easily answered by those who live here. Brazilian cities need a little more of Brasilia now more than ever.

从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第3张图片


从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第4张图片


纪念性轴心是Plano Piloto最著名的作品,而在南侧和北侧的道路轴心,最能展现Lucio Costa的巨大成功。这个城市到处都是面包店、酒吧、转角商店、会议厅、市场、教堂、水果店、体育馆、花店、学校,以及我们所需要的生活服务建筑。这是多么值得庆祝纪念的城市!

向这座城市建成60周年的致敬仪式原本在巨大的街道上进行。它展现这个功利的城市,而不是代表哪一方,它在人类感到安全舒适的地方举行,而不是在看似具有代表性的地方,它与那些在城市生活的人共存,而不是那些只经历数年的人。我们现在处于隔离状态,因此不会有庆祝活动,但是必须向那些地标建筑的设计者敬意。巴西利亚真实存在,它美丽又不完美,我很感激生活在其中。

The monumental axis presents the most celebrated works of the Plano Piloto, but it is the road axis, on the south and north wings, that best celebrate the great success of Lucio Costa. The city is full of bakeries, bars, corner stores, meetings, markets, churches, fruit shops, gym, florists, schools, and everything we need to live that is monumentally human. This is the city that must be celebrated!
The tribute to the city's 60th anniversary will take place on the superblocks and not on the terraces. It will occur in the utilitarian city, not in the representative one. It will happen where mankind feels protected, and not where he sees himself represented. It will occur for those who live and make their lives in the city and not for those who are passing through for four years. We are in quarantine, so there will be no celebration, but there will certainly be a just and necessary tribute to the one who originally was made to be an experiment, but became a standard. Brasília exists, it is beautiful, imperfect and I am grateful to live in it.

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巴西利亚:仅由男人构成?
Gabriela Cascelli Farinasso e Luiza Dias Coelho——Arquitetas inVisíveis事务所

每个伟大的男人的背后都有一个伟大的女人。古老的一句俗语多年来已经概括了建筑师之间的关系,而与巴西利亚的关系也是如此。建立新首都的过程巩固了巴西男人的名字,即建筑和城市主义的历史。但是在他们旁边的是女性,她们在上世纪50年代后期打破壁垒并撰写了一些鲜为人知的故事。如今,在巴西利亚成立60周年之际,才承认巴西帮助建立这座城市的女性了,并了解有关女性如何创造更具安全性、可及性、可持续性以及有利于积极发展的方式,以及为空间转型做出贡献社交活动。

巴西利亚是梦想,表明我们可以提前做一些事情激发梦想。正是这种精神使这座城市能够在如此短的时间内完成建设,第一批建筑师和规划师的创造力为新城市建设创建和开发提供了帮助。甚至在巴西利亚的竞赛中,女性也发挥了重要作用。

Brasília: Made Only by Men?
by Gabriela Cascelli Farinasso e Luiza Dias Coelho - Arquitetas inVisíveis
Behind every great man is a great woman. A saying as common as it is ancient, has for years synthesized the relationship between architects-, and with Brasília, it would be no different. The process of creating the new Capital has forever cemented the names of Brazilian men as the history of architecture and urbanism. But beside them were women, who in the late 1950s were breaking barriers and writing part of a little-known story. Today, 60 years after its inauguration, it is time for Brasília to recognize the women who helped to build the city, as well as to learn about how women can contribute to the transformation of spaces with more security, accessibility, sustainability and that favor positive social interactions.
Brasília was the dream fueled by the desire to show that we could do something ahead of our time. It was this spirit that enabled the construction of the city in such a short time frame, and the creativity of the first architects and planners who lent a hand for the creation and development of projects for the construction of the new city. Even the competition in Brasilia played an important role in enabling female professional performance.

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从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第7张图片


尽管人数很少,但仍有女性参加了巴西历史上最主要的建筑和城市主义竞赛之一。尽管Cerrado的现实如此严酷,但许多妇女带着家人来到首都,在巴西利亚大学工作和学习。巴西建筑师协会(IAB)的会员名单和纪念会议名单完整记录了该地区女性的成就,在上世纪60年代和70年代,当地发展势头最强劲的时期,首都大约有30位女性建筑师参与建设。

参与该城市建立的女性有Mayumi Watanabe Souza Lima。Mayumi出生于东京,并于1956年成为巴西人。同年,她就读于圣保罗大学建筑与城市化学院,于1960年完成学业。她于上世纪60年代初与SérgioSouza一起来到巴西利亚,与丈夫Lima共同实现了创建一所新大学的梦想,在那里她完成了硕士学位的学习,钻研了名为“城市住房”的研究课题,将住房理论研究转变为城市建设的挑战,当时举办了设计竞赛,该住房项目现在在São Miguel社区单位的街区落地。

Despite the low representation, there were women participating in one of the main architecture and urbanism competitions in Brazilian history. Although the reality of the cerrado was so harsh, many women came to the capital with their families to work and study at the University of Brasília. The accomplishments of women there are well documented through membership lists from the Institute of Architects of Brazil - IAB, and lists of commemorative meetings, which indicate that around 30 architects were in the capital in the 1960s and 70s- the period of greatest momentum in local construction.
Among the women involved in the city's inception was Mayumi Watanabe Souza Lima. Mayumi was born in Tokyo, and became Brazilian in 1956. In the same year, she enrolled in the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of São Paulo, completing her degree in 1960. She came to Brasília in the early 1960s with Sérgio Souza Lima, her partner and husband, living the collective dream of creating a new University where she developed a master's dissertation, titled "Aspects of Urban Housing", where she faced the challenge of transforming a theoretical discussion of housing into the construction of the city, which at the time was a becoming a design competition1. The housing project is now realized in the blocks of the São Miguel Neighborhood Unit.

从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第8张图片


从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第9张图片


她的丈夫为国家设计了一系列公立学校项目,还参与了其中一些的建设。在与教育工作者、基础教育管理人员、日托中心以及机构内外的儿童进行的三十多年的工作中,他讨论并分析了与社会中儿童空间有关的问题。在这方面的工作之后,他出版了两本书:《教育空间,使用和构造》(巴西利亚,MEC / CEDATE,1986年)和《 Cidade ea Criança》(圣保罗,诺贝尔,1989年)。

Mayumi根据她的学术经验发展了其他兴趣。她曾在巴西利亚、桑托斯、圣何塞·多斯·坎波斯和圣卡洛斯工程学院的联合国大学建筑与城市化学院担任教授。这些学院隶属于共产党,在对资本主义生产方式的批评中,建筑师的职业讨论发挥了重要作用。在学习的第一年,她会让学生与贫民接触,进行政治方面的引导,因为她相信建筑可以与社会变革相结合。

Her husband designed a series of public school projects for the country, and also was involved in the construction of some of them. In more than thirty years of work with educators, administrators of basic education, daycare centers, and children outside and inside institutions, he discussed and analyzed issues related to spaces for children in our society. Following this line of work, he published two books: Educational Spaces, use and construction (Brasília, MEC / CEDATE, 1986) and A Cidade ea Criança (São Paulo, Nobel, 1989).
Mayumi developed other interests based on his academic experience. She was a professor at the Faculties of Architecture and Urbanism at UnB, in Brasília, Santos, São José dos Campos and the São Carlos School of Engineering. It was affiliated with the Communist Party and had an important role in the discussion about the professional performance of architects from the criticism of the capitalist mode of production. He put his students in contact with the favelas in the first year of study, seeking to politicize the students, as he believed in architecture combined with social changes.

从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第10张图片


从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第11张图片


好奇心使我们重新审视了建筑历史以寻找女性的名字,展示了Mayumi Souza Lima和SãoMiguel邻里小组。她是一位建筑师,在她的职业生涯中参与建造的作品激励着我们。

Mayumi花费了超过50年的时间来创建城市,这就是为什么我们希望在这个特殊的周年纪念日,巴西利亚可以向塑造这座首都的女性们亮起光芒。

The curiosity that made us revisit the history of architecture in search of female names, presented us with Mayumi Souza Lima and the São Miguel Neighborhood Unit. She is an architect who inspires us with her professional career, personal engagement, and works that are built in the present day.
It took more than 50 years to recognize Mayumi's role in the design of this city, which is why we wish that on this particular anniversary, Brasilia shines a light on the women who helped shape this capital.

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巴西利亚中心地区的城市生活小体验
Maribel Aliaga Fuentes——FAU-UnB设计表现专业教授

今天,我决定探寻Superquadras流线之外的新世界。

清晨,我离开Parque da Cidade附近的Setor Hoteleiro Sul,前往Eixinho,越过W3公路,沿着南部商业区的街道向市政区方向行驶。

我看到了人、商业和交易的商户。其中鞋店、服装店和小吃店,还有很多人!

建筑物的轮廓遮盖了路径。我感受到了街道、风的长廊。

我走过州立美术馆,穿过地下通道穿越Eixão。

结束短暂的旅程,我回到了Asa Norte。

这是一次城市经历,短暂而喜悦。

On the Small Experiences of Urban Life in the Heart of Brasília
by Maribel Aliaga Fuentes - Professor at the Department of Design, Expression and Representation at FAU-UnB
Today I decided to venture into a new world outside the Superquadras circuit.
Early in the morning I left the Setor Hoteleiro Sul near Parque da Cidade towards Eixinho, crossed the W3 and went down the internal street of the southern commercial sector towards the municipalities sector.
I saw people, commerce and traders. Shoes, clothes, snack bars. People!
The marquee of the buildings shaded the path. The streets, corridors of wind.
I went down the gallery of the states and crossed the Eixão through an underground passage.
To end the adventure as it should, I took a little zebra back to Asa Norte.
It was such an urban experience, that for a brief moment I was happy.

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这就是巴西利亚!
Luiz Eduardo Sarmento——IPHAN 建筑师、城市规划师;IAB-DF高级顾问

“我感受到了这种氛围,真正巴西人的紧张生活。这与我对这个市中心的想象完全不同。巴西人照顾了那些建造这座城市的人。事实上,梦想不及现实。” -Lúcio Costa

巴西利亚也许是我们所知道的最特殊的城市发展案例。

这座首都是一场全国性公开比赛的结果,为大约50万人设计。根据IBGE的数据,现在,它已成为国内第三大都市。从字面上看,正如Lúcio Costa在1984年访问Rodoviáriado Plano Piloto时所说,“梦想不及现实”。

It's All Brasilia!
by Luiz Eduardo Sarmento - architect and urban planner at IPHAN and Senior Adviser at IAB-DF.
"(...) I felt this movement, this intense life of the true Brasilians (...). This is all very different from what I had imagined for this urban center (...). Those Brazilians took care of it who built the city and are legitimately there. In fact, the dream was less than the reality ". -  Lúcio Costa2
Brasília is perhaps one of the most exceptional cases of urban growth that we know of.
The capital city is the result of a national public competition, and was designed for approximately 500,000  people. Now, it is the third-largest metropolis in the country, according to IBGE data. Literally, “the dream was less than reality”, as Lúcio Costa said, when he visited the platform of the Rodoviária do Plano Piloto in 1984.

从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第14张图片


从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第15张图片


正如Costa拜访因其意识形态而诞生的城市时一样,重要的是我们必须仔细研究城市的运作方式。关于梦想中的巴西利亚,人们进行了很多辩论,但是我们需要了解巴西利亚,我们仍然需要了解这些年来大都市的发展情况。

了解今天的巴西利亚比规划中的巴西利亚更加重要,我们能将今天的城市居民与许多年前来建造首都并实现现代主义梦想的人们联系起来。

Just as Costa did when visiting the city that was born from his ideologies, it is important that we take a more careful look at how the city operates today. Much is debated about the dreamed Brasilia, but we need to understand the but we still need to understand how the metropolis has grown over the years.
By understanding that Brasília today is much more than what Brasília was planned to be, we will be able to connect the city dwellers of today to those who came to build the capital city and realize the modernist dream many years ago.

从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第16张图片


从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第17张图片


巴西利亚的六十年历史非常具有挑战性,因为它是从现代主义核心中崛起的巴西大都会,但它目前也面临着重大问题,亟待提供解决方案,使这座城市能够不断地创新。

现代城市的遗传学存在于Plano Piloto附近的社区中,这些社区突显了市中心与清晰的城市周边之间的反差,其跨度比其他巴西大都市都更大。周边地区的演变是Plano Piloto道路逻辑的延续,这在行政区人口增加、收入较低且基础设施消耗了其相当一部分资源的情况下是一个加剧的因素。在住区中,常见的是棚屋的结构极为不稳定,但却保留了容纳其主要资产汽车的空间。

Brasília's sixty-year history is very challenging because it is the Brazilian metropolis that emerged from a modernist nucleus, but it also currently presents significant problems that we need to face to provide the solutions that a city that was born under the aegis of demands for urban innovations.
The genetics of the modern city is present in the settlements that have emerged around the Plano Piloto, which underscores the contrast between the urban center and the clear urban sprawl, with a greater span than what is usually observed in other Brazilian metropolises. The evolution of the peripheries is a continuation of the road logic of the Plano Piloto, which is an aggravating factor in the Administrative Regions whose population has a lower income and that infrastructure consumes a considerable part of its resources. In informal settlements, it is common to have shacks whose structure is extremely precarious, but which reserves a space to house its main asset: a car.

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城市结构的特殊性给日常生活增加了一些困难,例如交通问题,以及贫穷的人们不断被驱逐到大都市的边缘,还有象征性、文化性和社会问题,例如各个社会阶层之间在市内的极少互动。如果一切都那么遥远,还是巴西利亚吗?

解释这种社会空间隔离的一个因素是巴西利亚中心与一些行政区域之间的距离。Ceilandia是州政府推动的一个定居点,目的是使居住在Plano Piloto地区的居民重新定居。大约50年后,Ceilandia成为了农业生产的旧区和Sol Nascente社区的所在地,该社区曾被视为拉丁美洲最大的贫民窟。Sol Nascente是这些阶级隔离的典范,距离Eixo Monumental do Plano和其他社区30多公里。

The peculiarity of our urban fabric presents daily difficulties, such as transportation problems and the continuous expulsion of the poorest people to the edges of the metropolis, as well as symbolic, cultural, and social problems, such as the small interaction between the various social classes in the city center. Is it all Brasilia if everything is so far away?
One factor that explains this socio-spatial segregation is the distance between the center of Brasília and some administrative regions. Ceilandia, whose name comes from the Invasion Eradication Center, was a settlement promoted by the state to resettle the residents who lived in the camps in the Plano Piloto Region. About 50 years later, Ceilandia became home to old areas of agricultural production and the Sol Nascente community, which was once considered the largest slum in Latin America. Sol Nascente is an exemplary case of these distances, with the more than 30 km separating the Eixo Monumental do Plano and the community.

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从乌托邦到现实:巴西利亚60周年纪念第21张图片


这个遥远的距离对居民来说是非常惊人,以至于电影制片人Adirley Queirós在电影《White Out, Black I》中影射了这些场景,Ceilandia的居民需要出示护照才能进入巴西利亚市区。

新首都项目的创新和充满希望的精神是至关重要的,特别是在国家面临的逆境中。

This enormous distance is so striking for the residents that it was mocked by the filmmaker Adirley Queirós in the film White Out, Black I, in which the population of Ceilandia needed to present a passport to enter into the urban zone of Brasília.
It is essential that the innovative and hopeful spirit that guided the New Capital project be summarized and pushed forward, especially with the adversity our nation currently faces.

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我们身上有需要解决创新行动的城市交通和不平等问题的未来的重大责任。 通过这种方式,巴西利亚便拥有城市管理的标准,成为一座能够应对流动性、住房不稳定、城市基础设施及绿化和城市设备缺乏等问题的城市。这个挑战十分巨大,但我们的创造力和执行能力会以相同的速度发展。

如果现实大于梦想,我们就需要创造更大的梦想。这是我们的历史责任。

We have a big responsibility to (re)design the future of the city's mobility and inequality problems that demand creative actions. Through this, Brasília can return as a standard of urban management, and become a city that can face its mobility problems, precarious housing, lack of urban infrastructure, and absence of afforestation and urban equipment. The challenges are great and our creative and execution capacity needs to be developed on the same scale.
If reality is bigger than a dream, we need to dream even bigger. It is our historical duty.

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