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锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第1张图片


锡兰之家

“锡兰之家”项目是基于一、二线城市的养老现状,为普通收入半自理老人提出的养老概念住宅室内设计。本项目强调老年居住空间的“无意识性”及人文关怀因素,尝试为老年人创造一个能尽可能独立生活的包容的住宅室内空间。

受中国传统养老观的影响,一线城市中,大部分老人还是希望子女能够陪伴身边,安度晚年,但同时考虑到城市生活环境下给子女所带来的繁忙工作的压力,他们也不愿过多、额外的给子女增加负担;但另一方面,对于子女来说,生存与尽孝道之间难以两全,甚至于,久而久之,哪怕像每天一起吃顿饭这样日常都无法满足,老人可能会抱怨自己居家的孤独,子女内疚的同时却又无能为力。

本项目提出了“老人独立、家人兼顾”的理念,即:着力老年人与家人这两类人群之间的共处关系,为该两类群体在生理与心理等维度上所存在的隐性矛盾提供化解方案,以使得传统的居家养老模式在更广泛的可行性程度上获得优化和改善,从而足够好地契合当代家庭居家养老的生活观念和生活方式。

The XiLan’s Home
The XiLan’s Home is based on the situation of elderly care in first-tier city, and propose a residence concept about an ordinary income half self-care elderly. The project emphasizes the "unconsciousness" of the elderly's living space and its humanistic care factors, so as to create a barrier free house for the elderly to live independently.
In first-tier city, influenced by the traditional in China, most of the elderly hope their children can company at home when they are old. However, due to their busy work, they are not willing to increase the burden on their children. For their children, they want to be filial, but they can't give up their work in order to survive. As time goes by, even if daily things like having a meal together everyday can't be satisfied, the elderly may complain about their loneliness at home and children feel guilty but helplessness.
The project propose a concept “elderly independently, family pursue both”, focus on the relationship between the elderly and family, and propose solutions for solving the hidden contradictions in various dimensions such as physiology and psychology, so as to improve the traditional home-based pension model to a greater extent, which can more perfectly fit the contemporary family life concept and life model.


01
项目场地分析

Site Analysis

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第2张图片

场地总平面
Site


项目地址位于上海市闵行区江川路,周边交通有地铁5号线,小区南边为沿街店铺,包括餐饮、日常用品店等。住宅东侧沿街,住宅套内面积约为70m2。

The project is located in Jiangchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, near Metro Line 5, and there are many shops in the south of the community, including restaurant and supply stores. The east side of the residence is along the street, and it’s about 70 m2.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第3张图片

原始平面图
Initial plan


住宅为上世纪50年代建造的老房子,原本有两家住户。上图红色虚线分割了两家独立的住户,灰色区域为私人的卧室和花园,白色的区域为公用的厨房和卫生间。5年前经过调整,大户将小户合并,现在为一家一户式住宅。

关于住户的信息:

住户为一位94岁老人(男)和38岁照料家人(孙女)。老人有生活半自理能力,日常爱好是手工和园艺,每天早晨4:30起床,晚上8:30睡觉,饮食清淡,每餐都习惯喝酒。孙女在医院工作,偶尔需要加班整理资料,医院离住宅近,照顾相对方便。

The house was built in the 1950s, and it had two households. The red dotted line above divides the two independent households. The gray area is the private bedroom and garden, and the white area is the public kitchen and bathroom. After the adjustment five years ago, the large families merged the small ones, and now there is one family in the residence.

Information about households:
The resident is a 94 year old man and his a 38 year old granddaughter. The old man has a half self-care ability. He likes doing crafts and gardening every day. He gets up at 4:30 in the morning and goes to bed at 8:30 in the evening. He has a light diet and is used to drinking every meal. Granddaughter works in the hospital, sometimes needs to work overtime, the hospital is near home, so it’s convenient to take care.


02
平面方案

Interior Layout

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第4张图片

日照分析图
Sunlight analysis


首先对于住宅地理位置的光照进行调研分析:清晨,南向室内受光较强,傍晚则面北房间光线充足;冬季太阳高度角小,光线弱,反之,夏季太阳高度角大,光线强。

The first thing is to analyze the sunlight of this area: it is found that in the morning south of the room has strong light,and in the evening north of the room has sufficient light.In winter, the sun height angle is small, and the light is weak. In summer, the sun height angle is large, and the light is strong.


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第5张图片



锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第6张图片

住宅风向分析
Wind direction analysis


上海,闵行区,属于北亚热带海洋性季风气候,四季时长分配比较均匀,夏季炎热冬季阴冷。夏季在西太平洋副热带高压影响下多为东南风,冬季受西伯利亚冷空气影响主要为西北风。

Minhang District, Shanghai, belongs to the north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with uniform distribution of seasons, hot summer and cold winter. In summer, under the influence of the subtropical high in the Western Pacific Ocean, it is mostly southeast wind, and in winter, it is mainly northwest wind.

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平面方案调整
Adjustment of plan


通过光照和风向分析,对平面做出调整:

1. 将原本入口的厨房改为开敞客厅,其中一个较大的卧室改为厨房和餐厅,北面的小卧室为家人卧室,南面较大的卧室为老人卧室。

2.老人卧室外的花园中新增一个储藏室,两个花园打通,用玻璃门分隔。

After the thinking of the light and wind direction, the plan was adjusted:
1. The original kitchen at the entrance was changed into an open living room, one of the larger bedrooms was changed into a kitchen and dining room, the small bedroom in the North was a family bedroom, and the larger bedroom in the South was an elderly bedroom.
2. There is a new storage room in the garden outside the elderly's bedroom. The two gardens are open and separated by glass doors.


03
空间设计

Space Design

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第8张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第9张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第10张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第11张图片

餐厅效果图
Restaurant


用餐空间是家人共处空间中使用频率最高的空间。除了基本的用餐功能外,其还可作为家人互动交流、 游戏、简单家务的空间, 因此餐厅是除客厅外主要共同活动空间。在空间布局中,将厨房与餐厅合并在同一空间,小时候长辈做饭,子女在一边望眼欲穿,现在换子女给长辈做饭,长辈可以在餐厅休息,享受闲暇,利用这样的空间组织来营造时光流逝的氛围。此外,还将花园空间与餐厅打通,使内外空间相互融合,光照能更好的引入室内,餐厅由此变得看上去更宽敞、明亮了。

Dining room is the most frequently used family space. Apart from its basic dining function, it can also be used as a space for family interaction, various games and simple housework. Therefore, the restaurant is the main space for family activities besides the living room. In the spatial layout, the kitchen and dining room are combined in the same space. As a child, parents can cook for their children. Now they can change their children to cook for their parents. Parents can rest in the dining room, watch and enjoy quietly, and use such spatial organization to create the atmosphere of time passing. In addition, to get throught the garden and the dining room will make the space more fusion, and this will brought more light into the room, that makes the dining room more spacious and bright.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第12张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第13张图片

老人卧室
The elderly's bedroom


老人卧室的床采用可调节护理床,房间除了座椅和床头柜内没有设置过多的家具,是为了给老人留出更多的活动空间,以及辅助器械的摆放空间,例如助步器、位移器、坐便椅等。床头设置了两个拉手,可以辅助老人借力起身,另外还有一个医用打点滴支架,便于老人居家输液。室内灯光大部分采用反射光源,其柔和的泛光照明,减少了炫光,便于特殊情况下老人长时间躺在床上时,减少对眼睛的伤害。

The elderly’s room use adjustable nursing bed, there is not much furniture in the room except the chair and night table, which is to leave more space for the elderly, such as walking aid, displacement device, toilet chair, etc. Two handles are set at the head of the bed to help the elderly get up. There is also a drip rack at the head of the bed, which is convenient for the disabled elderly to receive infusion at home. Most of the room's overall lighting adopts soft light belt, its refraction light source is not easy to hurt the eyes of the elderly, and it's more comfortable to lie in bed for a long time.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第14张图片

卧室互动墙
The Game Wall


互动墙装置位于老人卧室,该装置为老人独自在家时提供轻松愉快的娱乐消遣,依据老人的兴趣以及基本需求,将装置分为三大 板块:WORK,JOYFUL, LIFE。

The Game Wall is in the bedroom, this will provide some acitvities for elderly when they stay at home alone, according to the elderly’s interests and needs, the Game Wall will divides into three part: WORK, JOYFUL and LIFE.

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WORK(关闭状态)
WORK(close)

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第16张图片

WORK(打开状态)
WORK(open)


01 WORK 板块的构成与老人以前工作有关,退休后他依旧喜欢动手给家里做一些有趣的小部件,碍于没有好的操作环境。本设计中特别预留了一个工作台 , 可以存放各种工具以及配件。工作台面可折叠,不用时可以收起来作为柜门而不占用空间。该板块还设置了老人喜爱的收音机、怀旧9寸电视和CD机,保留老人对老旧物品的特殊情感。

01 the composition of WORK is based on the elderly's previous work, and he still likes to make some handiwork for his family after retirement. Due to the lack of good operating environment, he gradually stopped. In this design, a workbench is specially reserved to store various tools and accessories. The worktop can be folded, and can be folded up when not in use as a cabinet door without occupying space. This composition also include the elderly's favorite radio, 9-inch TV and CD player to keep the elderly's feeling with the old things.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第17张图片

JOYFUL

02 JOYFUL 板块 主要布置了娃娃机以及五子棋盘。此区域主要是让老人即使在房间也能有丰富的娱乐, 通过各种有趣的小装置帮助老人做一些脑力锻炼,代替了传统养老院中护理人员每日与老人玩游戏进行思维锻炼的环节。

02 JOYFUL mainly arranges the baby players and checkers. This area is mainly for the elderly to have rich entertainment even in the room. It helps the elderly to do some mental exercises through a variety of interesting small devices, which replace the game that nurse play with the elderly everyday to exercise their minds.

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LIFE

03 LIFE 板块为老人预留了生活用品的空间,当老人失去了自理能力,需要长时间卧床时,饮食以及药品都需要有一个就近的空间去存放,让老人可以随时取到。此外在这里还设置了一个饮水机和一个小水池,饮水机可以方便老人准备下午的点心,例如泡麦片等。小水池可以方便老人临时用水,不用离开所在房间去外屋取水。

03 The composition of LIFE can put things for daily use. When the elderly lose their self-care ability and need to stay in bed for a long time, they need to have a nearby space for food and medicine storage so that the elderly can get them at any time. In addition, a water fountain and a small pool are set up here. The water fountain can facilitate the elderly to prepare snacks in the afternoon, such as cereal, etc. The pool can provide temporary water for elderly, no need to get water outside the room.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第19张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第20张图片

老人专属花园
The elderly's garden


老人的专属花园,集合了生活和娱乐的功能,对于出行不便的老人来说,卧室外的花园是接触外部空间较好的选择。由于住宅卫生间面积较小, 因此将洗衣功能区放到花园中,洗完的衣物也可以直接晾晒。储藏室与花园 交接的墙采用半透明玻璃隔开,这样白天的阳光可以透过玻璃照 射到储藏室内部,晚上储藏室的灯光也可以 给花园带来照明。除此之外专属花园还可以养殖一些植物、鸟和鱼,来丰富老人的生活。

Elderly’s own garden combines the functions of life and entertainment, it is the best choice for the elderly to contact outside in the garden whitch is near his bedroom. Due to the small area of the residential toilet, the laundry function area is placed in the garden, and the washed clothes can also be directly dried. The wall between the storage room and the garden is separated by translucent glass, so that the sunlight in the daytime can shine through the glass to the inside of the storage room, and the light in the storage room at night can also bring illumination to the garden. In addition, to rich the elderly’s life, garden also can raise some plants, birds and fish.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第21张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第22张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第23张图片

公共花园
Public garden


公共花园使用了透明玻璃结构框架,让住户在雨天也能享受舒适的花园空间。花园主要用于家人的办公空间,也可作为平时老人与朋友聚会交谈的空间。西面的墙则设置了两排花架,可以装饰一些小型的盆栽、 浇花的水、摆件等。地面的铺装处理上为延续餐厅与花园界面的质感,使用真空石地面,靠近坐具下方采用木质格栅铺装,周围点缀白色石子池。公共花园与隔壁私人花园平时可以隔开,需要时打开门就形成相通的空间, 家人在此办公室也能随时看到老人在房间的状态,如有紧急情况发生,则可第一时间、最短时间由花园进入老人卧室而及时处理。

The public garden use glass structure to make resident can have a confortable time in rainy day. Garden is used for an office or a place that elderly and friends can talk here. The west wall is set with two rows of flower racks, which can decorate some small potted plants, water flowers, ornaments, etc. The pavement treatment of the ground is to continue the integration of the restaurant and the garden. The vacuum stone ground is used, and the wooden grating is used near the seat, surrounded by white stone pools. The public garden and the private garden next door can be separated at ordinary times. If necessary, open the door to form an interlinked space. Family members can also see the state of the old man in the room at any time in this office. If emergency happened, family can enter the bedroom in the shortest time.


04
衍生设计

Detail Design

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第24张图片

行为分析图
Behavior analysis


行为分析:放下手中物品 > 挂外套 > 扶着坐下 > 取鞋 > 换鞋 > 扶着站立

Behavior analysis: put down the objects in hand > hang the coat > sit by the hand > take the shoes > change the shoes > stand by the hand

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第25张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第26张图片

玄关架
Porch frame


根据上述行为考虑玄关架的组成部分,有小平台可以放钥匙,下部挂钩可以挂袋子,上部挂钩用来挂衣服,预留三个平台用来放老人长穿的皮 鞋、运动鞋和拖鞋,还有一个区域作为雨伞架,这样就不会把雨水带入室内。

According to the behaviors above, to think about the porch frame. There is a small platform to put the key, the lower hook to hang the bag, the upper hook to hang the clothes, and three platforms to put the shoes, sneakers and slippers, and an area for umbrellas, so that you won't bring the water into room.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第27张图片

行为分析图
Behavior analysis


行为分析:打开电视 > 盖上毯子 > 拿出零食 / 织毛衣 /...> 关闭电视

Behavior analysis: turn on the TV > cover the blanket > take out snacks / knit a sweater /... > turn off the TV

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第28张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第29张图片

专属茶几
Exclusive tea table


考虑到坐轮椅的老人不方便取茶几上的物品,因此在老人轮椅边设计了一个老人专属茶几,可存放的物品包括: 零食、垃圾桶、书架、毛毯和 各种常用物品,高度适合坐轮椅使用,当老人独自在家时也可以方便地拿取需要。

Considering that it is not convenient for the elderly to get the items on the tea table when they are in wheelchair, so a special tea table is designed only for the elderly. It can include snacks, trash cans, bookshelves, blankets and various common items, and it’s highly suitable for wheelchair. When the elderly is alone, they can easily get everything they needs.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第30张图片

行为分析图
Behavior analysis


行为分析:浇花、喂鱼、晾衣服、晒太阳

Behavior analysis: water flowers, feed fish, air clothes, sun-bathe

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锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第32张图片

花园复合功能架
Garden Frame


此结构将包括储存所有园艺工具,排列摆放盆栽、鱼缸等,安置洗衣机等多种功能与一体,方便老人有序整理花园。

This structure will include all gardening tools, arrangement of potted plants, fish tanks, placement of washing machines and other functions, to help the elderly gardening more convenient.

锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第33张图片


锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第34张图片


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锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第36张图片

其他衍生品
Other derivatives



锡兰之家— —中国居家养老模式中的住宅室内设计第37张图片


吴定宇

东华大学环境设计系本科
曾实习于目心设计研究室、新壹步洛建筑设计、
睿集艺术设计
WudyLincy@163.com


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