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光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第1张图片

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How Lighting Affects Mood

由专筑网小R,吴静雅编译

阅读这篇文章的时候,你可能是在充满人造光的室内环境中,对大多数人而言,现代的生活大部分都处在封闭的室内环境之中,感受着自然光与人造光。人造光对于人们的影响十分巨大,但是它也给人们的身体带来了一些负面效应。长久以来,人们的身体不断地在进化,不断地适应白天的阳光与夜晚的黑暗,这种反应符合昼夜规律,这是大部分生物的生活周期。昼夜的规律主要受到光线的影响,同时温度等其他元素也起到一定的作用。

It's very likely that you are reading this text in an interior space with the lights on. For most people, modern living entails spending most of the day in closed rooms, bathed in a sum of artificial and natural lights. Yet while artificial light has afforded mankind incalculable possibilities, it has also caused some confusion in our bodies, which have evolved for thousands of years to respond to the stimuli of sunlight in the day and darkness at night. This responsiveness to natural light is called the circadian rhythm or cycle, and describes the 24-hour biological cycle of almost all living beings. Circadian rhythms are primarily influenced by light reception, but temperature and other stimuli also play a role in the process.

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第2张图片

Image © Katherine Lu

人们的自然生物钟位于下丘脑,它连接着遍布全身的光线感受系统,而这些感受系统则会让人们的生物钟与自然保持一致,因此要先了解昼夜循环的相关知识,因为这影响了人们的生活节奏,对睡眠、情绪、消化、体温,甚至是细胞的更新。研究证明,充足的光线能够有效地改善情绪状况,而较差的光线则会引发身体健康问题,因此,照明的种类与强度直接影响人们的注意力、食欲、心情等等方面。

Our natural clock is in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus, which is linked to photoreceptors located throughout the body (such as the retina). These receptors are responsible for synchronizing our internal clock with the light we absorb during the day. Understanding the circadian cycle is essential because it affects the rhythms of the human body and influences sleep, mood, wakefulness, digestion, temperature control, and even cell renewal. Research shows that an adequate amount of light improves mood and energy levels, while poor lighting contributes to depression and other deficiencies in the body. The amount and type of lighting directly affect concentration, appetite, mood, and many other aspects of daily life.

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第3张图片

Image © Metipat Prommomate

那么,如果我们始终生活在人造光线的环境之中,那么昼夜规律还能健康吗?例如许多人睡觉与起床的第一件事就是查看手机。那么建筑师是否能够通过照明来调节人们的生物钟,促进健康的生活?研究显示,可以应用人造光来模拟自然光线,例如白天的灯光更加明亮或是强烈一些,而到了夜晚的灯光则相对昏暗,如果照明强度相反,那么就会影响人们的生物钟,改变睡眠习惯,让一整天都无精打采。多伦多大学的研究证明了光线强度的重要作用,说明了,明亮的光线能够加强人们对于刺激的反应,其中的影响既消极也积极。

But how can we have a healthy circadian rhythm if we spend most of our time in environments flooded with artificial light? Or if the last thing we do before bed and the first thing we do when we wake up is check our phones? How can architects use lighting to promote healthy circadian rhythms and thus, healthier living? Researchers recommend imitating natural daylight cycles with artificial lights. Brighter and stronger lights are suggested for the morning and during the day, while dimmer lights are recommended for night. Opposite configurations can cause a confusing circadian rhythm, alter our sleep schedules, or lead to decreased energy throughout the day. A study from the University of Toronto demonstrated the significance of light strength, showing that bright lights "intensify our initial emotional reaction to a stimulus" and that "its effects can be both positive and negative."

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第4张图片

Image © JAG Studio

光线的色温同样对人的身体有很大的影响,这个概念一般用开尔文(K)来表达,色温越高,那么光线就越亮、越冷,其中的“冷”与“暖”的概念并不是指物理上的热量,而是指灯光的颜色,暖色灯光让人感觉放松,而冷色的灯光则更具有刺激性,它会让人们感觉更加专注,提高生产力。另外,人们也相信,蓝光能够降低褪黑素的分泌,这是一种与睡眠相关的激素,从而让人们感觉更加清醒,而电脑与手机的屏幕发出的都是蓝光,因此过多使用电子设备会让人们的睡眠质量下降。但是,如果蓝光得以智能应用,那么在需要全新投入工作的时候,就能够给人们带来更高的效率。

The color temperature of light likewise greatly affects the human body. Typically depicted in Kelvin (K), the higher the color temperature, the brighter and cooler the light will be. In this case, 'warm' and 'cold' don't refer to the physical heat of the lamp, but to the tone or color of the light. Warm lights make the environment feel more welcoming and relaxing, while cooler lights make the environment more stimulating - they make us feel more alert, more focused, and can increase productivity levels. It's also believed that blue light reduces levels of the sleep-related hormone melatonin, making us feel more awake. Computers and mobile screens emit a lot of blue light, so that last email check before bed can make our sleep a lot less restful. But when used intelligently, blue light can be ideal for those spaces where the mind needs to work at full speed, such as meeting rooms, industrial kitchens, and even factories, where high concentration is expected.

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第5张图片

Image © Yu Cheng

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第6张图片

Image © Adrià Goula


黄色光相对应的自然状况是黎明与黄昏,意思是这会让人们的身体放松下来,那这就构成这样一种状态,在夜晚人们一般感受到的是月光,这十分重要。微弱、间接的暖色光会营造安静放松的环境氛围,针对办公环境来说,这并不是最优选项,但是针对卧室、休息区而言,这十分有益。

Yellow tones (at the bottom of the color scale) correspond to dusk and dawn, times when the body is generally more relaxed. This makes a lot of sense if we think that until recently, humans weren't exposed to high-intensity lights at night, but simply to the light of the moon and the fire. Weak, indirect, and warm lighting tends to make environments quieter and people more relaxed. Although this may not be a good choice for a work environment that requires efficiency and productivity, it may be beneficial for a restaurant, a rest area, or a bedroom.

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第7张图片

Image © Metipat Prommomate

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第8张图片

Image © Amit Geron


专业人士普遍认为,白天利用阳光,夜晚则尽量不要应用蓝光或是冷光,这样能够有效地提高睡眠质量,同时促进身体健康。虽然人们无法控制所居住环境的光线,但是人们首先要有这样的意识,这样才能有效地控制自己做出适应生物钟的选择。

Experts agree that taking advantage of sunlight during the day and avoiding direct exposure to cold or blue light at bedtime can improve quality of sleep and positively affect people's well-being and productivity. And although it's impossible to control the lighting of all the environments and spaces that we will inhabit, being aware of the impacts of lighting on our body can make us think twice about some of the choices we would otherwise make in a heartbeat - whether it be buying that lamp for sale in the supermarket, or even just checking our phone one last time before bed.

光环境的小知识,你都了解吗?第9张图片

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