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何处安生:为无家人士设计的5个公共设施案例第1张图片

Image © CatalyticAction

Beyond Refugee Housing: 5 Examples of Social Infrastructure for Displaced People

由专筑网王雪纯,小R编译

在人类历史中,为了食物、住房或更好的经济条件,人口的流动已成为常态。然而如今,世界上却有人正在经历前所未有的流离失所。联合国报告声称,目前有6 850万人流离失所,其中包括近2540万难民,其中未满18岁的难民占一半以上。叙利亚和缅甸等国家的冲突战争、气候变化所导致的海平面上升、农作物欠收等问题常有发生,这场人口流动的危机是二十一世纪所面临的挑战。

对于流民问题的解决,目前建筑行业给出的答案是紧急住房,但建筑师和规划师仍在研究人口流动产生的社会文化后果。我们如何建立适应流动人口整体需求的城市?如何确保我们的社区能够吸收难民和移民进入当地的社会结构?

让我们来看看五个来自世界各地的社会基础设施的典例,专为流民服务的学校、医院和社区空间。

Throughout human history, the movement of populations–in search of food, shelter, or better economic opportunities–has been the norm rather than the exception. Today, however, the world is witnessing unprecedented levels of displacement. The United Nations reports that 68.5 million people are currently displaced from their homes; this includes nearly 25.4 million refugees, over half of whom are under the age of eighteen. With conflicts raging on in countries like Syria and Myanmar, and climate change set to lead to increased sea levels and crop failures, the crisis is increasingly being recognised as one of the foundational challenges of the twenty-first century.
While emergency housing has dominated the discourse surrounding displacement in the architecture industry, it is critical for architects and planners to study and respond to the socio-cultural ramifications of population movements. How do we build cities that are adaptive to the holistic needs of fluid populations? How do we ensure that our communities absorb refugees and migrants into their local social fabric?
This World Refugee Day, let’s take a look at 5 shining examples of social infrastructure from around the world–schools, hospitals, and community spaces–that are specifically directed at serving displaced populations.

何处安生:为无家人士设计的5个公共设施案例第2张图片

© Filippo Bolognese

1. Maidan帐篷 / Bonaventura Visconti di Modrone + Leo Bettini Oberkalmsteiner

该社交中心是对叙利亚难民危机的回应,旨在为希腊里索纳的难民营创建室内公共空间,打造化解战争、迫害和强迫迁移引发的心理创伤的公共区域。Maidan帐篷的独特形式由铝结构支撑,防水防风防火的纺织品覆盖在屋顶上。

1.Maidan Tent / Bonaventura Visconti di Modrone + Leo Bettini Oberkalmsteiner
Designed in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, this social hub aims to create an indoor public space for refugees at a camp in Ritsona, Greece–a communal area to counteract the psychological trauma induced by war, persecution, and forced migration. Maidan Tent’s distinctive form results from an aluminium structure that is covered by a water, wind, and fire-resistant textile.

何处安生:为无家人士设计的5个公共设施案例第3张图片

© CatalyticAction

2. Jarahieh难民学校 / CatalyticAction

这个项目为2015年米兰世博会上的展馆捐赠。非营利设计工作室CatalyticAction拆除了那座展馆,将其运往黎巴嫩的Jarahieh难民营,这里是50万流离失所的叙利亚儿童的家。工作室应用其材料,设计了多功能和可持续的教育和社会设施。学校不仅仅为孩子们服务,它在晚上是成人学校,也可以作为公共电影院和周末援助分发的集会场所。

2. Jarahieh Refugee School / CatalyticAction
This project emerged out of the donation of a pavilion exhibited at the 2015 Milan Expo. Non-profit design studio CatalyticAction dismantled the pavilion, transported it to Jarahieh refugee camp in Lebanon–home to 500,000 displaced Syrian children–and adapted it to create a functional and sustainable educational and social facility. The school doesn’t just cater to children; it functions as an adult school during evenings, and as a public cinema and a site for aid distribution on weekends.

何处安生:为无家人士设计的5个公共设施案例第4张图片

© Y. Meiri

3.难民和移民工人花园图书馆/ Yoav Meiri建筑师事务所

该图书馆成立于2010年,是一个城市社区项目,位于以色列特拉维夫的一个公园内,每到周末,就有不少农民工人聚在公园里休憩。该结构设计并没有墙壁,也没有门,但却有意识地确保所有人能够免费和公平地借阅图书馆的3,500本书籍。“我们认为重要的是,让那些移民与难民能够放心大胆地来到这里读书。”建筑师解释道。

3. The Garden Library for Refugees and Migrant Workers / Yoav Meiri Architects
Founded in 2010 as an urban community project, this library is located in a public park in Tel Aviv, Israel, where migrant workers congregate on weekends. The structure is designed to have no walls or doors–a conscious decision to ensure free and equitable access to the library’s collection of 3,500 books. “It was important…that those who maintain illegal immigrant status will come without fear,” explained the architects.

何处安生:为无家人士设计的5个公共设施案例第5张图片

© Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha

4.孟加拉国的漂浮学校/ Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha

孟加拉国的海平面上升问题已经导致了成千上万人流离失所,为了应对这一问题,非营利性组织Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha工作室正在将学校和社区中心迁移到传统的船只上。白天,小船上为儿童、成人开设课程,日落之后,有需要的家庭可以自由使用船只继续工作或教育活动。

4. Floating Schools in Bangladesh / Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha
In response to rising sea levels in Bangladesh, a condition that is displacing people by the thousands in the country, non-profit Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha is moving schools and community centers onto traditional boats. During the day, the boats host classes for children and training sessions for adults; after sunset, families are free to use the boats to continue work or educational activities.

何处安生:为无家人士设计的5个公共设施案例第6张图片

© CatalyticAction

5.黎巴嫩Bar Elias的难民儿童游乐场/ CatalyticAction

为了解决孩子们的心理创伤,确保他们的健康发展,这个游乐场为难民儿童提供了安全的空间,让他们可以在脆弱的环境中玩耍和休息。设计团队组织了研讨会,让孩子们参与到设计过程当中。

5. Playgrounds for Refugee Children in Bar Elias, Lebanon / CatalyticAction
In an effort to address issues of psychological trauma and to ensure healthy development, this school playground provides a safe space for refugee children to play and rest–a space of security in a vulnerable environment. Workshops were organised in an inclusive design process that hinged on ideas from the children themselves.

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