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从神秘到普遍,从高高在上到接地气——教堂的转变第1张图片


保护社区意识:从教堂到娱乐中心
Preserving the Sense of Community: From Church to Rec Center

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

经过猛烈的轰炸,建筑也许只剩下一种命运:毁灭。在西班牙内战期间,许多建筑遭受破坏,建造于13世纪的Vilanova de la Barca哥特教堂自1936年来就惨遭遗弃。

大约80年之后,诸如教堂的正厅、西立面、教堂东向半圆形的后殿都经过了修复与翻新。在这次的改造中,教堂并不只是教堂,它还是一座多功能厅堂。

Under heavy bombing, buildings seem to have only one fate: destruction. Severely damaged during the Spanish Civil War, the 13th-century Gothic Church of Vilanova de la Barca (Lleida, Spain) remained abandoned since 1936.
It was only almost 80 years later that the remnants of the structure – parts of the naves, the west façade and the apse towards the east– went through a restoration and refurbishment process. This time, however, the building was not meant to be used as a church but as a multi-purpose hall.

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AleaOlea采用了现代策略,其设计措施并没有覆盖这座建筑的历史,人们仍然能够了解它的过去,这是中世纪宗教场所,同时成为了废墟。就此而言,这是一个全新的社交空间,同时也是纪念西班牙天主教传统和国家英勇奋战的纪念。

Despite their contemporary approach, AleaOlea’s interventions don’t hide the building’s past: one can still understand its history as a medieval place of worship or as a ruin of war. In that sense, the project is as much a new community space as a monument to the memory of the Spanish Catholic tradition and the country’s belligerent history.

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建筑师通过白色砖石的排列表达了从老立面到新立面的过渡,白色砖石和古老石墙结合在一起,重叠的砖石立面有着全新的阿拉伯砖砌山墙屋面,构成了肌理与照明的效果,突出表达了哥特教堂常见的戏剧性结构,例如后侧上方的拱顶和侧面扶壁,这是中间与后侧的空间过渡,建筑师认为:“整个系统就如同新的建筑陶瓷外壳,覆盖在古老的墙体之上。”

The gradual transition from the old fabric to the new is built through the arrangement of white bricks, delicately laid over the ancient ashlar walls. This partially superimposed lattice brick façade was finished with a new gabled Arabic tile roof, creating textures and lighting effects that highlight the already dramatic structures common to Gothic churches like the ribbed vault arching above the apse and the two lateral buttresses that mark the transition between the main nave and the apse. As the architects put it: “the whole system is conceived as a new architectural ceramic shell gently supported on the remains of the ancient walls.”

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就外部而言,新结构的目的是恢复教堂原有的体量与形态,而肌理与光线也改变了空间的内部感受,使其更加优雅地出现在人们面前,并且拥有了灵活的新功能。这里有全新的窗户、白色墙体、院落、充满光线的空间。也许这是对当地传统的呼应,建筑师改变了流线体系,从而在内外空间之间创造了分隔,但是同时也让二者的流通更加顺畅,让建筑成为更多功能的社会空间。

If from the outside the new structure aims to restore the volumetric shape and original appearance of the church, it is through its texture and light that the project manages to change the building’s interior perception, gracefully adapting its image to its new use as a flexible space for the community. New windows, white walls and the addition of a courtyard intensify the natural light that now fills the space. And, perhaps in a nod to the Nolli map, by changing the circulation system the project creates a threshold between outside and inside that simultaneously makes the building work as an extension of the public space outside.

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通过简单的手法,建筑发生了一些改变,例如其形态与功能,但是并没有丢失历史元素。另外,“在新与旧、过去与未来之间建立了关于空间的对话”,这个项目还具有这样一个特点,那便是让社区人民能够聚集于此。

图片:Laurian Ghinitoiu

These are all simple operations and yet together they accomplish something extraordinary: to change the image and function of a heavily charged typology, without betraying or hiding its past. Furthermore, “establishing an architectural dialogue between the old and the new, past and present”, the project brings back that which was probably the most important loss: a place to come together as a community.

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