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除了自给自足,还能超出所需太阳能的可持续住房第1张图片


顶部带屋顶花园的白色巴西房屋
Estúdio 41 tops small white Brazilian house with roof garden

由专筑网邵红佳,李韧编译

Estúdio 41建筑公司设计了这座白色的小房子,它是一栋可持续建筑,设有光伏板、屋顶花园和雨水收集系统。

Hauer住宅位于巴西东南部城市库里蒂巴。这个项目以房屋所在地命名,该区以前是工业区,现在变成了居住社区。

Architecture firm Estúdio 41 has designed this small, white house in Brazil to be highly sustainable, including photovoltaic panels, a green roof and a rainwater collection system.
Hauer House is located in Curitiba in southern Brazil. The project is named after its location in the city's Hauer district – a former industrial zone that has transitioned to a residential neighbourhood.

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这个项目的主要目标是创造出一种“经济环保型建筑”,且易于维护。还有一点十分重要,那就是有足够的室外空间。

为了满足上述要求,设计小组构想了一座单层住宅,只占据矩形场地的二分之一。场地的其余部分将会是露天院落。

The main goal for the project was to create an "economically and environmentally correct building" that would be easy to maintain. Providing ample outdoor space was also important.
In response, the team conceived a 119-square-metre, single-storey dwelling, which takes up just half of the rectangular property. The remainder of the site is turned over to outdoor areas.

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建筑师在设计说明中说道:“极简的建筑方案使它在经济上可行,同时释放了户外空间。”

低矮的房子平面上呈L形,庭院周围有栅栏。位于庭院外的楼梯由悬臂式混凝土台阶组成,通向屋顶花园。

"A house with minimal programme was expected to make the building feasible financially, while also freeing up outside space," said local firm Estúdio 41 in a project description.
The low-lying house is L-shaped in plan, with rectilinear bars organised around a courtyard. Situated off the courtyard is a staircase comprising cantilevered, concrete steps, which leads up to a rooftop garden.

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混凝土砖墙上刷成了白色,降低了成本。该建筑物的地桩深深打入地下,适应脆弱的土壤和浅层地下水。

住宅对面是翠绿的草坪,高高的穿孔金属板将它一分为二。这面墙具有视觉穿透性,可以让人感受到住宅与街道和周围环境的联系。

White-painted walls are made of concrete blocks, which helped keep costs down. The building's foundation – which features piles driven deep into the ground – responds to fragile soil conditions and a shallow water table.
A verdant lawn is set to the front of the residence and bisected by a tall fence made of perforated metal panels. The wall has a transparent quality, enabling the home to feel connected to the street and surrounding neighbourhood.

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住宅十分通透,伸缩玻璃幕墙模糊了室内外的界限。在阳光直射的地区,通过双层玻璃窗来散热。住宅中的多个开口使新鲜空气得以循环。

“所有内部空间都保证了自然通风,在盛行风的方向上,窗口开的更大。”建筑师说。

The home has large apertures, including retractable glass walls that diminish the boundary between inside and out. In areas that receive direct sunlight, the team used double-glazed windows to help reduce heat gain. The numerous openings in the dwelling enable fresh air to circulate throughout.
"Natural ventilation is guaranteed in all internal spaces, being amplified by the positioning of large openings in the direction of prevailing winds," the studio said.

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在设计初始,可持续概念就一直是设计指导思想。为了减少热量消耗,这座住宅装备有8个太阳能电池板,每一个能够产生270瓦的电量,远远超过了建筑所需。太阳能电池板和电网相连,可以为业主创造收入。

From the very start of the project, sustainability was a guiding concern. In addition to strategies to reduce energy consumption, the home has eight photovoltaic panels, each with a capacity of 270 watts. The solar array, which is tied into the electric grid, can generate more power than the home requires, resulting in credits for the owners.

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设计小组同时还采取了节水措施。雨水储存到屋顶和底下蓄水池,然后引导到房屋的各个水龙头处。此外,植被景观收集了一部分雨水,减轻了公共排水管道的负担。

The team also incorporated measures for conserving water. Rainwater is stored in rooftop and underground cisterns – and then channelled to various taps around the property. Moreover, the vegetated landscaped captures stormwater and reduces the amount of rain sent to the public drainage system.

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该小组在设计和建造过程中运用了BIM技术,从而提高了设计控制水平和施工精度。

建筑师说:“设计过程就像是裁剪做衣服一样,测量精确,没有任何多余或者遗漏。”

气候响应型建筑已成为巴西的一种常见建筑类型。

优先考虑环境因素的案例包括由FCstudio设计的Box住宅,该建筑的房间完全向室外开放,以及Martins Lucena设计的IF住宅,该建筑的设计目的是捕捉盛行风,最大限度地减少热量。

照片:Eron Costin

The team used building information modelling (BIM) during both the design and construction stages, which allowed for heightened control and precision.
"The design process was just like the tailor's craft, where the measurements are precise – nothing in excess or missing," the team said.
Creating climate-responsive buildings has become a common practice in Brazil.
Other recent projects in the country that prioritise environmental factors include the Box House by FCstudio, which has rooms that fully open to the outdoors, and the IF House by Martins Lucena, which was designed to capture prevailing breezes and minimise solar heat gain.
Photography is by Eron Costin.

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项目信息:
建筑设计:Studio 41
执行:Eron Costin
结构计算:FlávioNogueira, Fattor Structural Projects
水环境工程:ALG Engenharia
电气工程:ALG Engenharia

Project credits:
Architect: Estúdio 41
Execution: Eron Costin
Structural calculation: Flávio Nogueira, Fattor Projetos Estruturais
Hydrosanitary project: ALG Engenharia
Electrical project: ALG Engenharia

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