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时代所趋,看这6所高校如何开创建筑风格第1张图片


6 Schools That Defined Their Own Architectural Styles

由专筑网王雪纯,吴静雅编译

建筑学教育总是从根本上受到某个特定时期流行风格的影响,但这种影响同时也是相互的。毕竟,所有风格都必须起源于某个地方,而过去几个世纪以来,这些变革中的学校本身就是建筑运动的影响者和发明者。这些在时代中进步的学校,往往是由不满现状的,拥有实践头脑的人所建立,他们找寻一种从未有过的建筑产出或教育。于是他们带着学生打造自己的方式。当这些学生毕业并继续自己钻研或成为教师时,学校的影响力就会扩散,一场新的运动就会诞生。

以下是6个创新学校的例子,这些学校开创了自己的建筑风格:

Architectural education has always been fundamentally influenced by whichever styles are popular at a given time, but that relationship flows in the opposite direction as well. All styles must originate somewhere, after all, and revolutionary schools throughout centuries past have functioned as the influencers and generators of their own architectural movements. These schools, progressive in their times, are often founded by discontented experimental minds, looking for something not previously nor currently offered in architectural output or education. Instead, they forge their own way and bring their students along with them. As those students graduate and continue on to practice or become teachers themselves, the school’s influence spreads and a new movement is born.
Below are 6 examples of innovative schools that developed their own architectural styles:


1. 包豪斯:国际风格/包豪斯风格

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德绍包豪斯学校|Bauhaus Dessau. Image via Pixabay

作为学校风格代名词的最著名的例子之一,包豪斯及其毕业生所创作的作品都独具一格:忽视不必要的装饰,并注重工艺、功能和实用性。包豪斯将美术与工艺相结合以寻找“Gesamtkunstwerk”或艺术总体,而包豪斯的成立是因为相信所有艺术和建筑都应该并且终有一日会被整合。包豪斯风格展示的共同特征是干净的几何形状、规则性(虽然通常不对称),以及对应用装饰的拒绝。

1.Bauhaus: International Style/Bauhaus Style
One of the most well-known examples of a school synonymous with a style, the work produced by the Bauhaus and its graduates is distinguishable by a lack of unnecessary ornament and a focus instead on craft, functionality, and practicality. In an approach that combines fine arts with crafts in search of the “Gesamtkunstwerk,” or total work of art, the Bauhaus was founded in the belief that all arts, as well as architecture, should and would one day be integrated [1]. Common features exhibited by the Bauhaus Style are clean geometrical forms, regularity (though not typically symmetry), and a rejection of applied ornament.

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勒·柯布西耶的萨伏伊别墅|Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye. Image© Flickr user End User

从1919年到1933年,历经魏玛、德绍,柏林,包豪斯由Walter Gropius和Ludwig Mies van der Rohe(以及经常被遗忘的第二任主任Hannes Meyer)等传奇人物所领导,此后包豪斯的名字与国际风格不可分割。事实上,作为一个名为Neues Bauen的德国现代主义大运动的一部分,包豪斯所传达的实践精神尤其激励了建筑,艺术,设计和建筑教育的运动。当包豪斯面对不断上升的政治压力而关闭时,学校教师和学生散布到世界各地,从而进一步扩大了包豪斯的影响力。从以色列到美国以及两者之间的许多地方,许多建筑物都是由支持理性,功能性建筑的密斯和格罗皮乌斯所建造的,现在这些建筑因其历史意义而得到保护。

From 1919 to 1933 in the cities of Weimar, Dessau, and finally Berlin, Germany, the Bauhaus was led by such legendary figures as Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (as well as the oft-forgotten second director, Hannes Meyer), names which have since become inseparable from the International Style. In fact part of a larger movement of German modernism known as Neues Bauen, the practices taught at the Bauhaus in particular spurred one of the most influential movements in not only architecture, but also art, design, and architectural education [1]. When the Bauhaus closed in the face of rising political pressure, its former faculty and students dispersed throughout the world, thus spreading the Bauhaus influence even further. From Israel to the United States and many places between, numerous buildings were erected in the rational, functional style espoused by Mies and Gropius and are now under preservation for their historic significance.


2. Vkhutemas(俄罗斯高等艺术暨技术学院):俄罗斯建构主义

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Arkhitektura VKhUTEMAS, cover. Imagevia Wikimedia under public domain

Vkhutemas是一所艺术和技术学校,其与包豪斯的现代风格与教学方法有许多相似之处,他们之间也经常合作,于1920年在莫斯科成立的Vkhutemas同样具有雄心勃勃的理想。这所俄罗斯国立学校是通过合并两所老学校而创建的,这意味着这所高校从一开始就整合了众多学科。 Vkhutemas的教师和学生采用革命性的艺术方法,使用精确的几何学,将重点放在空间上。虽然建构主义是一种主要以图形和雕塑形式发展的风格,但其基本原则基于建筑和结构。

2.Vkhutemas: Russian Constructivism
A contemporary of the Bauhaus with many parallels in instructional approach and even some collaboration between them, Vkhutemas was an art and technical school founded in Moscow in 1920 with similarly ambitious ideals.      The Russian state-sponsored school was created by merging two previous schools, meaning multidisciplinary integration was built-in from its inception. Students and faculty at Vkhutemas took a revolutionary approach to art, using precise geometry with an emphasis on space. Although constructivism as a style developed primarily in graphics and sculpture, its underlying principles are based in architecture and construction.

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泰特林之塔|Vladimir Tatlin's Tower proposal. Imagevia Wikimedia under public domain

具有实际工业性质的高校成果为建构主义运动奠定了基础。苏联政府曾推动的经济设计使得他们创造出具有“工厂”美学的功能性极简主义作品。建构主义可以被定义为有意识地创造艺术,与“自主艺术”直接对立,并且通常也包含社会政治动机。建构主义建筑将技术与共产主义理想相结合,在风格上变得抽象,并将几何质量与现代性符号相结合。着名的俄罗斯建构主义建筑师包括埃尔·利西茨基(El Lissitzky)和弗拉基米尔·塔特林(Vladimir Tatlin),他们两者都被他们的理论和未建造的作品所认可。与包豪斯相似,Vkhutemas在1930年被迫关门大门,随着其同事和校友逃离,其遗产传遍整个东欧甚至更远。

The practical, industrial nature of the school’s work set the foundations for the constructivist movement. The push by the Soviet government for economy in design led to the creation of minimalist, functional pieces with a “factory” aesthetic. Constructivism can be defined as a conscious effort to create art, as directly opposed to “autonomous art,” and often also incorporated socio-political motives. Constructivist architecture combined technology with Communist ideals, becoming stylistically abstract and integrating geometric masses with symbols of modernity. Well-known Russian constructivist architects include El Lissitzky and Vladimir Tatlin, though both are most recognized by their proposals and unbuilt work. Similarly to the Bauhaus, Vkhutemas was pressured to close its doors in 1930 and as its associates and alumni fled, its legacy was spread throughout eastern Europe and beyond.


3. 巴黎美术学院:法式艺术风格

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Cour du Palais des études de l’école des Beaux-Arts. Image © Flickr user Dalbera licensed under CC BY 2.0

巴黎美术学院在包豪斯和Vkhutemas之前。从本质上讲,这两所学校的行为是在时代中革命,因此必须采用反叛的形式来创新。可远望过去,巴黎美术学院的风格是在时代中进步,寻找着纯正的法式风格。 学校本身可以追溯到17世纪,但是巴黎美术学院的建筑风格主要于19世纪30年代到19世纪崛起。这种风格在这个时候成熟,不仅影响了法国新古典主义,而且影响了哥特式和文艺复兴风格。

3.école des Beaux-Arts: Beaux-Arts Style
Before the time of Bauhaus and Vkhutemas, there was the école des Beaux-Arts. By nature, the very act of those two schools becoming revolutionary necessitated a previous style against which they could rebel. Modeled on an even more distant past, the Beaux-Arts style was progressive in its own time, searching for an authentically French style. The école itself can trace its history to the 17th century, but the style of Beaux-Arts architecture arose primarily from the work of the 1830s through the 19th century. The style matured at this time, drawing influence not only from French neoclassicism, but also from Gothic and Renaissance styles.

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哥伦比亚大学低纪念图书馆|Low Memorial Library at Columbia University. Image © Wikimedia user Ad Mesken licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

学校吸引了来自世界各地的学生,他们毕业后回到家乡,在国际上传播着“法式”风格。特别是,许多来自美国的建筑学生冒险来到巴黎学习,因此法式风格对美国建筑产生了十分巨大的影响。 Richard Morris Hunt和Henry Hobson(H.H.)Richardson等建筑师标志着一代建筑师的开端,他们以法式美学来设计美国的大学校园,图书馆,博物馆和其他重要的公共空间。这些建筑以及其他艺术风格的建筑,充满了对称性,古典装饰细节,拱形门窗,雕像和雕塑,往往会唤起人们对多种历史风格的回想。

The école attracted students from around the globe, who then returned to their homelands to disseminate the “French” style internationally. Particularly, many architecture students from the United States ventured to study in Paris and therefore the Beaux-Arts style has had an especially strong influence on American architecture. Architects such as Richard Morris Hunt and Henry Hobson (H.H.) Richardson marked the beginnings of an entire generation of architects who would utilize their Beaux-Arts training to design university campuses, libraries, museums, and other important public spaces in the States. These buildings, and others in the Beaux-Arts style, are full of symmetry, classical ornamental details, arched doors and windows, statues, and sculpture, often recalling a multitude of historical styles at once.


4. 格拉斯哥艺术学院:新艺术风格/格拉斯哥风格

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格拉斯哥艺术学院|Glasgow School of Art. Image © Wikimedia user Twid licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5

在同一时期的大西洋,在19世纪末至20世纪初的苏格兰格拉斯哥,我们遇见了查尔斯·马金托什和格拉斯哥风格,这是新艺术运动的地域变体。虽然马金托什在他的一生中并未获得很多认可,但他的作品自此成名,被广为人知甚至商业化。马金托什在16岁时便被设计界熟识,当时他就读于格拉斯哥艺术学院。他后来在那里遇到了他未来最好的朋友,妻子和嫂子,后来他们一起被称为“四人组”。

4.Glasgow School of Art: Art Nouveau/Glasgow Style
Around the same time period across the Atlantic, in Glasgow, Scotland in the late 1800s-early 1900s, we meet Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Glasgow Style, a regional variation of Art Nouveau. While Mackintosh gained little recognition during his lifetime, his work has since become renowned and widely recognizable and commercialized. Mackintosh’s introduction to the world of design took place at age 16, when he enrolled in the Glasgow School of Art. While there he met his future best friend, wife, and sister-in-law who henceforth became known together as “The Four.”

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"The Wassail" by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Image © Flickr user Dalbera licensed under CC BY 2.0

四人组设计的开始是作为艺术和手工艺运动的一部分,并最终发展成为英国新艺术运动风格的仅有的几个设计师,其运动在英国并不像欧洲其他地区那样受欢迎。这四人,特别是马金托什,开启了他们自己对新艺术风格的独特诠释,后来也被称为格拉斯哥风格。花卉图案,细长形状和强烈的垂直度是运动的标志。马金托什对格拉斯哥艺术学院的风格影响非常巨大,以至于1890年至1920年间由其教师,学生和校友制作的设计作品统称为格拉斯哥风格艺术。马金托什的少数建筑作品之一是原格拉斯哥艺术学院建筑,近年来遭受了两次毁灭性的大火。

The Four began designing as a part of the Arts and Crafts movement and eventually evolved to become some of the only designers producing in the Art Nouveau style in the United Kingdom, where the movement was not nearly as popular as in other parts of Europe. The Four, and Mackintosh in particular, eventually began to develop their own unique interpretation of Art Nouveau which became known as the Glasgow Style. Flower motifs, elongated forms, and strong verticality were the hallmarks of the movement. So strong was Mackintosh’s stylistic influence upon the Glasgow School of Art that design work produced by its faculty, students, and alumni between 1890-1920 is collectively referred to as Glasgow Style art. One of Mackintosh’s few built works is the original Glasgow School of Art building, which has suffered two devastating fires in recent years.


5. 巴西圣保罗大学建筑与城市学院系馆:保利斯塔学派/巴西野兽派

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圣保罗大学新建筑和城市学院|FAU-USP Building. Image © Flickr user Fernando Stankuns

巴西建筑师João Batista Vilanova Artigas在圣保罗大学理工学院教授美术,建筑和规划,当时他才和其他一群雄心勃勃的教授分道扬镳,自己组建了圣保罗大学新建筑和城市学院。(FAU-USP) Vilanova Artigas不仅是参与建立新学校学术方向的教师之一,而且与Carlos Cascaldi一起,设计了风格独树一帜的学校,后来被称为保利斯塔学派。

5.Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of São Paulo (FAU-USP): Paulista School/Brazilian Brutalism
Brazilian architect João Batista Vilanova Artigas was teaching aesthetics, architecture, and planning at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo when he and a group of other ambitious professors broke off to form the new Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of São Paulo (FAU-USP). Vilanova Artigas was not only one of the teachers involved in establishing the academic direction of the new school, but, along with Carlos Cascaldi, designed the school building itself in a style that came to be known as the Paulista School.

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圣保罗大学新建筑和城市学院|FAU-USP Building. Image © OWAR Arquitecto

20世纪50年代的保利斯塔学派(或Escola Paulista /圣保罗学校)与Oscar Niemeyer等建筑师所代表的里约 (Carioca)学校形成了鲜明的对比。里约热内卢学派喜欢更圆,更光滑的表面,如Niemeyer's Brasilia所见。保利斯塔学派采用较重的体积和粗糙的饰面设计,喜欢露出其混凝土结构。作为野蛮建筑中广泛运动的一部分,其风格主要集中在建筑技术,可见结构和钢筋混凝土上。 FAU-USP建筑在混凝土墙上设计简单的饰面,开放空间则反映设计教育和实践空间的需求。事实上,野兽派建筑尽可能设计成开放的形式,通过减少私人空间来强调共享空间的重要性。他们根据学校的教育方法和运动来鼓励互动和共存的社会理想,比如用坡道连接六层楼来追求空间连续性的做法。

The work of the Paulista School (or Escola Paulista/São Paulo School) in the 1950s was in contrast to the Rio (Carioca) School exemplified by architects like Oscar Niemeyer. The Rio School preferred rounder, smoother surfaces, as seen in Niemeyer’s Brasilia. The Paulista School designed with heavier massing and less-refined finishes, celebrating the exposed concrete structure. As a part of the broader movement of brutalist architecture, the style focused on construction techniques, visible structure, and reinforced concrete. The FAU-USP building features simple finishes on its concrete walls and the open spaces are designed to reflect the needs of a space for design education and practice. In fact, the building was conceived to be as open as possible to emphasize the importance of shared spaces and diminish private spaces. In line with the school’s educational approach and the movement’s social ideals of encouraging interaction and coexistence, the pursuit of spatial continuity goes as far as connecting all six levels via a system of ramps.


6. 南加州建筑学院:后现代工业主义

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南加州建筑学院|SCI-Arc Building. Image © Wikimedia user Airhead888, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

虽然它故意跳出风格分类,但南加州建筑学院(SCI-Arc)仍然是过去几十年美国建筑界的一支有影响力的力量。自1972年成立以来,SCI-Arc被认为比美国普通建筑学校更加前卫。圣莫尼卡的学生和教师的创始小组开始有意识地从实验角度来看待建筑,将他们的新学校建立在“没有围墙的大学”的协作概念上。其中一位原创的联合创始人是Thom Mayne,他也是在同一年开始建筑实践Morphosis,如今他在学校设计工作室当老师。

6.SCI-Arc: Post-modern Industrialism
While it deliberately defies stylistic classification, the Southern California Institute of Architecture, or SCI-Arc, remains an influential force in American architecture of the past few decades. Ever since its inception in 1972, SCI-Arc has been understood to be more avant-garde than the average U.S. architecture school. The founding group of students and teachers in Santa Monica set out to approach architecture from an intentionally experimental perspective, basing their new school on the collaborative concept of a “college without walls .” One of those original co-founders was Thom Mayne, who also started the architecture practice Morphosis in the same year and today teaches design studios at the school.

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Morphosis的库伯高等科学艺术联盟学院新教学大楼|Morphosis' Cooper Union New Academic Building. Image © Wikimedia user Beyond My Ke, licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

20世纪70年代美国建筑教育的主要风格是西海岸的现代主义和东方的思想主义。SCI-Arc虽然位于加利福尼亚州,但并未着眼于创造学校周边工业景观的中世纪现代基础。为了有意识地脱离任何政治和社会多数群体,该学校选择建立一种小规模的生活方式,专注于人文科学和社会科学。 SCI-Arc更适合被归类为对建筑而非风格的态度,它被描述为“富有表现力的后现代折衷主义”。作为一所独立的建筑学院,它与任何大型机构无关,SCI-的教师和学生Arc能够快速灵活地适应潮流的和实验性的设计和教育方法。

The predominant styles in American architectural education in the 1970s were modernism on the west coast and intellectualism on the east. SCI-Arc is located in California, yet it disregarded the mid-century modern foundations on which the area was built in favor of the aesthetics of the school’s surrounding industrial landscape .Consciously founded to be separate from any political and social majorities, the program instead established a small-scale lifestyle approach, with a unique focus on the humanities and social sciences. SCI-Arc is more comfortable being categorized as an attitude towards architecture rather than a style, but has been described as “expressive post-modern eclecticism.” As a standalone school of architecture unassociated with any larger institutions, the faculty and students at SCI-Arc are able to adapt quickly and flexibly to new and experimental methods of design and education .

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