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小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第1张图片


探索厄瓜多尔的当地建筑
explore the local architecture of ecuador through designboom readers radar

由专筑网苏一,李韧编译

厄瓜多尔的建筑语言在其悠久的历史中经历了许多影响。虽然最常见的风格来源于西班牙殖民者,但这个国家的精神还是以其当地语汇为特征。当代建筑师继续利用传统材料和建筑技术,但是这里经常受到亚热带气候和山地景观的影响。

Designboom的小编们探索了当地厄瓜多尔建筑的当代语言。

the architectural language of ecuador has seen many different influences throughout its long history. while one of the most commonplace styles is that which was introduced by spanish colonists, the spirit of the nation is characterized by its local built vernacular. contemporary architects continue to make use of traditional materials and construction techniques, often taking influence from the subtropical climate and mountainous landscape.
in this edition of reader’s radar, designboom explores the contemporary language of local ecuadorian architecture.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第2张图片

image by JAG studio

Natura Futura事务所在厄瓜多尔住宅应用了玻璃窗和烤砖

Natura Futura事务所在厄瓜多尔的Villamil建造了一座带有烤砖和无玻璃窗的住宅。探寻该地区的精髓,这里曾经是渔民的港口,并且当地气候已经被联合国教科文组织宣布为世界上第二宜居的气候,建筑师将传统元素融入住宅的设计中,例如用百叶窗代替玻璃作为窗户,这样可以通风,还可以遮挡外界光线,另外砖块还能保证隐私,并且具有渗透性。建筑师选择在水平面上开发能支持两层住宅的柚木柱系统。

natura futura designs ecuador house with glass-less windows and baked bricks
natura futura has built a house with baked bricks and glass-less windows in villamil, ecuador. capturing the essence of the area, which was once a port for fishermen and has been declared by UNESCO as the second best climate in the world, natura futura had incorporated traditional elements in the design of the residence such as shutters instead of glass on the windows which allow for ventilation and shadow, and bricks that provide both privacy and permeability. a system of teak wood pillars supports the two story residence, which natura futura have chosen to develop on a horizontal plane.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第3张图片

image courtesy of emilio lópez arquitecto

Emiliolópez事务所使用当地木材为厄瓜多尔的房屋创造了双倍高度的空间

Emiliolópez Arquitecto事务所在厄瓜多尔Don Juan海岸线附近的山顶附近设计了一座家庭住宅。从东到西,建筑两侧开放,建筑的前方面向大海,后方是原生落叶林。双开口的概念塑造了这座建筑,建筑如同汇集在一侧的漏斗。设计方案有着非常简单的平面构成,即将两层开放区域通过双层高天花板连接。

emilio lópez uses local wood to create double height spaces for house in ecuador
emilio lópez arquitecto has designed a family home located near the top of a hill along the coastline of don juan in ecuador. oriented from east to west, the building opens at both sides: in the front facing the ocean and in the back to a native deciduous forest. the concept of the double-opening shapes the architecture, which is conceived as two funnels that converge at one side. emilio lopez arquitecto designed the scheme to contain the very simple plan with two levels of open area connected through double-height ceilings.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第4张图片

image by JAG studio

厄瓜多尔的这座住宅是一座照亮周围环境的灯塔

厄瓜多尔建筑师和摄影师Juan Alberto Andrade为2016年失去家园的当地妇女设计了“灯塔”。这座两层高的住宅的名字来源于它的外观,二楼覆盖着半透明聚碳酸酯,放置在一楼之上,夜间能照亮周围环境。Andrade的项目分为两个独立的住房单元,一楼为客房,二楼用于出租,用租金来弥补地震带来的经济损失。

this home in ecuador by juan alberto andrade is a lighthouse that illuminates its surroundings
ecuador-based architect and photographer juan alberto andrade has designed ‘the lighthouse’ or ‘la caja de luz’ in bahía de caráquez for a local woman who had lost her home to an earthquake in 2016. the two-story dwelling derives its name from its exterior appearance — the second floor covered with semi-transparent polycarbonate is placed onto the base of the first floor and illuminates the surroundings at night. andrade’s project was divided into two independent housing units — the ground floor for the client and the upper floor to function as the economic income for rent lost in the earthquake.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第5张图片

image by JAG studio

Al Borde将厄瓜多尔的18世纪废墟翻新成带有悬浮床的家庭住宅

总部位于厄瓜多尔的工作室Al Borde将这座看似无用的破旧房屋翻新成现代化的家庭住宅。建筑师保留了现有的土墙,保持空间的开放式布局,并为每个家庭成员增加了一项非常重要的元素,即悬浮床。最终完成的作品几乎与18世纪的完成效果相同,因为只进行了少数特殊的翻新处理,例如结构墙的加固、夯土的处理、门窗的置换、地面的抛光。

al borde refurbishes an 18th century ruin in ecuador into family house with suspended beds
ecuador-based studio al borde has refurbished a seemingly useless ruined house in ibarra into a modern family home. having kept the existing earth walls, the architects reinforced them maintaining the open layout of the space, and adding one little yet very significant element — suspended beds for each member of the family under the ceiling. the final finishes of al borde’s completed work are almost the same as they were there in the 18th century, as the refurbishings that were done are a few and strategic — structural walls are reinforced, rammed earth is treated, doors and windows that were in poor condition are changed, and the floor is clad with polished concrete.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第6张图片


Ruptura Morlaca在厄瓜多尔的宁静景观中设计了无重力漂浮混凝土住宅

Ruptura Morlaca工作室根据客户的需求,在宁静、温馨、宽敞的森林里,设计了一座极简主义住宅。项目团队选择了自然地区中最具表现力的空间。清晨,这里浓雾弥漫在山中,漂浮在倾斜的景观中,露出树冠、树梢、山峰。在这种自然的场地里工作,使得建筑师能够“将建筑视为一种景观,就像山脉一样。”这会产生适应地形的人造区域,建筑也如同在树梢间缥缈上升。

ruptura morlaca’s concrete house floats weightlessly over serene landscape in ecuador
ruptura morlaca designs a minimalist house based on the client’s desire to retreat to a serene, silent, vast, spacious and forested site. the project team sited the house where nature is most expressive, in cuenca, ecuador — where, in the mornings, the atmosphere is characterized by a thick mist which settles into the mountains and floats among the sloping landscape, revealing a hint of the canopy of treetops, mountain peaks. working with the natural slope of the site allows ruptura morlaca to ‘observe architecture as a landscape and buildings as their mountains.’ this generates an artificial territory that adapts to the topography, manipulating the landscape to obtain a new geography that rises when moving between the treetops.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第7张图片


厄瓜多尔的伞兵庇护所

“Quilico's Nest”是跳伞运动员的地下避难所,由学生设计建造。该项目是低预算的建筑,采用木材和再生轮胎等低科技材料,由学生在整个学期设计和建造。教授应用的学习方法是让学生们通过着手实际项目来学习。建筑位于伞兵出发和降落的地方。事实来讲,出于安全原因,该区域内禁止建造地面建筑,但由于庇护所在地下,这个项目便得以实施。

underground architecture: al borde’s students set a shelter for parachutists in ecuador
‘quilico’s nest’ is an underground shelter for parachutists, built by students as part of the al borde studio in universidad tecnológica indoamérica in ecuador. the project is a low-budget construction with low-tech materials such as earth, wood, and recycled tires, designed and built by the students during the whole semester. the learning methodology the professors applied was based on learning by doing while focusing on real projects. designed by three students — darío cárdenas, jonathan proaño, and daniel sandoval — quilico’s nest is set in a field where parachutists depart and land. due to this condition, it is forbidden to build in the area for safety reasons. nevertheless, as the shelter is underground, al borde’s students managed to obtain a permit to build the refuge for ten people.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第8张图片


Natura Futura Arquitectura事务所用厄瓜多尔的镜子包裹隐形门户

这座名为“隐形门户”的建筑,同样是Natura Futura Arquitectura事务所的设计作品,目的是让人们反思自己身上所失去的东西。光线、棱柱形,悬浮在深渊之上,这座临时的展馆希望把人们的思维带回地球,追溯到人类根源,因此产生了一种想法,建筑师通过打开一扇门回到城市之前的时代,那时人们住在农村,与自然保持着良好的关系。具有结构和木质内饰的“隐形门户”具有镜面皮肤。Natura Futura Arquitectura事务所希望通过一系列的设计措施来反思人们的当代生活。

natura futura arquitectura wraps invisible portal with mirrors in ecuador
entitled the ‘invisible portal’, this architectural intervention by natura futura arquitectura was built aiming for people to reflect on the lost vision of the self that beats on the other side of the reflection. light, prismatic, and suspended over the abyss, the temporary pavilion wants to bring us back to earth, to the roots—resulting in a door that opens to return to the idea that before we were not part of big cities but that we used to live in the countryside, maintaining a relationship with nature. with a structure and an interior of wood, the ‘invisible portal’ has a mirrored skin. situated among an area known as ‘enchanted clouds,’ this structure by natura futura is part of a series of self-managed interventions the team creates to promote different kinds of experimentations and reflections on our contemporary lives.

小住宅反应大精神,厄瓜多尔传统建筑探索之旅第9张图片


Estudio Felipe Escudero事务所设计了一系列用黑色铝材包覆的山墙屋顶

该项目由Estudio Felipe Escudero事务所设计,这个“小屋顶”采用传统与现代相结合的概念,创造出代表客户精神的工业建筑。该设计的特点是采用一系列不同大小的山墙屋顶,覆盖在黑色铝质包层的起伏表皮中。该建筑最大的仓库设计为奶酪的温控储存区。在内壳上设有聚氨酯板,使内部空间与外部隔热。场地的入口处是“警卫室”,类似于主体结构的较小版本。建筑师采用相同的几何形状,但它的规模较小,能够在设计的不同元素之间建立联系。

estudio felipe escudero designs a series of gable roofs clad in black aluminium
sited in pifo, ecuador, estudio felipe escudero’s ‘little roofs’ is designed with the concept of combining tradition and modernity to create an industrial building that represents the ethos of the client. the design is characterized by a series of differently sized gable roofs, covered in an undulating skin of black aluminium cladding. the building’s largest warehouse is designed as a temperature controlled storage area for cheese. polyurethane panels have been specified on the inner skin which thermally insulate the internal space from the outside. at the entrance to the site is the ‘guard house’ which resembles a smaller version of the main structure. the same geometry, but at a lesser scale, is employed by estudio felipe escudero to create a connection between the different elements of the design.

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