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比利时建筑师Léon Stynen所留下的那些美好第1张图片


比利时建筑师Léon Stynen值得一看的5项作品
Five buildings by Belgian architect Léon Stynen that are worth visiting

由专筑网邵红佳,李韧编译

为了歌颂比利时20世纪最伟大的建筑师Léon Stynen的成就,一系列展览和活动在比利时Antwerp省展开。让我们来看看这位建筑师最重要的五项建筑作品。

Léon Stynen在比利时以外的地区并不出名,但他在为家乡创造建筑形象方面发挥了关键作用。他的家乡在Antwerp省,老城的边缘,在19世纪时还是郊区。他也在Flanders设计建造了许多重要的现代主义建筑。

Léon Stynen出生于1899年,他受到了勒·柯布西耶等大师的影响,后来又受其朋友的影响。到1990年他去世时,他已经为Antwerp贡献了一系列重要的住宅和文化设施,其中包括DeSingel艺术中心,现在是弗兰德斯建筑学院(VAI)的所在地。

VIA的负责人Sofie De Caigny说:“在比利时,很少有建筑师像Stynen能留下如此引人注目、多种多样的建筑。”

他之所以这么出名,不仅仅是因为其作品的规模和质量,还是由于他在建筑教育和职业建筑师协会中所起到的重要作用。”

Antwerp is celebrating the work of Léon Stynen, one of Belgium's greatest 20th-century architects, in a series of exhibitions and events. Here's a look at five of his most important buildings.
Although not well known outside of Belgium, Léon Stynen played a key role in creating an architectural identity for his hometown of Antwerp, beyond the borders of the city's old town and its 19th-century suburbs. He also built a number of significant modernist buildings across Flanders.
Born in 1899, he counted architects like Le Corbusier among his influences, and later among his friends. By the time he died in 1990, he had contributed a series of major residential and cultural additions to Antwerp, including the arts complex DeSingel, now home to the Flanders Architecture Institute (VAI).
"Few Belgian architects have left a more striking and varied work," said Sofie De Caigny, director of VAI.
"He owed his fame not only to the scale and quality of his work, but also to the role he played within architectural education and the professional organisation of architects' associations," she told Dezeen.

比利时建筑师Léon Stynen所留下的那些美好第2张图片

在Antwerp的弗兰德斯建筑研究所(VAI)正举办Stynen的绘画展,就在他亲自设计的DeSingel大楼里/The Flanders Architecture Institute (VAI) is hosting an exhibition of Stynen's drawings in Antwerp, in the DeSingel complex he designed

30年前,Stynen成为第一批将他的档案捐赠给Antwerp的建筑师。现如今Anterp省收集了包括160多名建筑师的建筑档案,并交由VAI管理。

学院所目前正在举办大型的Stynen画展,并附有一本关于他的生平和建筑作品的新书。与此同时,还有两个小型展览也在展出,一个是他在Chandigargh的摄影作品,另一个展览讲述了他与艺术的关系。该市还发布了一张关于Stynende 事迹的行走游览地图,以及一系列的活动。

“可以说Stynen的档案是Flanders Architecture Institute收藏档案的起点。”de Caigny解释说。

她补充说:“Flanders建筑学院想进一步阐述他的作品。他的作品可以作为社会、经济和建筑界理论革命的反射。”

下面是Stynen的五项作品,由Antwerp作家Anna Winston选择而出。

Stynen became one of the first architects to donate his archive to the province of Antwerp 30 years ago. The archive collection – now encompassing the work of over 160 architects – is managed by VAI.
The institute is currently hosting a major exhibition of Stynen's drawings, accompanied by a new book on his life and buildings, plus two smaller shows – one on his photography of Chandigargh and another on his relationship with art. The city has also released a walking map for self-guided Stynen tours, alongside a series of events.
"One could say Stynen's archives formed the start of the collection of Flanders Architecture Institute," explained de Caigny.
"The Flanders Architecture Institute wants to shed new light on his oeuvre," she added. "His work can be read as a reflection of social, economic and intellectual evolutions in architecture."
Here's a look at five Stynen buildings, selected by Antwerp-based writer Anna Winston:

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DeSingel, Antwerp

DeSingle是Antwerp的重要的文化校园建筑,其中设置有Antwerp皇家音乐学院、Flemish建筑学院、各种音乐和戏剧团体、两个广播电台、咖啡厅、礼堂、剧院、表演空间,以及画廊。

这栋建筑有着复杂的内部布局,花了30多年才得以建成。建筑分阶段建造,由Stynen和他的继任者反复扩建和重组,建筑的元素变化反映了建筑师在其职业生涯后期的发展进程。

它仍然是他最重要的建筑作品。

DeSingle is Antwerp's major cultural campus, housing the Royal Conservatoire Antwerp, the Flemish Architecture Institute, various music and theatre groups, radio station Radio Two, a cafe, an auditorium, theatres and performance spaces, and galleries.
The building, with its complex internal layout, took more than three decades to realise. It was built in stages, then repeatedly expanded and reorganised by Stynen and his successors, with elements of the building reflecting the architect's progress through the latter years of his career.
It remains one of his most important buildings.

比利时建筑师Léon Stynen所留下的那些美好第4张图片


BP 大厦,Antwerp

BP大楼于1963年完工,是一项工程壮举。楼板和立面的网格,通过钢索悬挂在建筑物顶部的九根横梁上,这些横梁又依次被混凝土核心上部的两根主梁支撑。

Stynen通过这种悬挂系统创建基本无柱的结构体系,使内部布局比传统的办公楼更灵活。立面上有大面积的玻璃,让它比传统的办公楼更明亮。建筑的主体结构坐落于入口上方,占地面积小得多。

虽然这栋建筑不再是BP公司的办公场所,但它在当地仍被称为BP大楼。

BP Building, Antwerp
Completed in 1963, the BP Building is a feat of engineering. The floor slabs and facade grid are supported by steel cables hanging from nine cross beams at the top of the building, which are in turn supported by two main beams sitting on the concrete core.

This hanging system allowed Stynen to create a largely column-free design with extensive glazing on the facade, making the internal layout more flexible and brighter than a traditional office building. It also allows the main body of the structure to sit above an entrance with a much smaller footprint.
Although no longer occupied by BP, the oil company that commissioned the building, it remains known locally as the BP Building.

比利时建筑师Léon Stynen所留下的那些美好第5张图片


Casino, Knokke

20世纪20年代末,Stynen在Knokke设计了滨水赌场,这是他在比利时设计的四家赌场之一,并帮助建立了他的早期声誉。

这是当时Stynen最大的项目,代表了他作品的重大转变。他当时正接触到柯布西耶的作品,其中一部分资源来源于他的朋友RenéGuiette。RenéGuiette是一位艺术家,他在Antwerp的住宅是这位建筑师在比利时的唯一建筑。但沉重的圆形体量和对称的柱子仍然表明了Stynen受到了学院风和装饰主义的影响。

该建筑收藏了RenéMagritte和Paul Delvaux的重要艺术作品。

The late 1920s waterfront casino in Knokke was the first of four casinos in Belgium designed by Stynen, and helped establish his early reputation in the country.
His biggest commission at the time, it represents a significant transition in Stynen's work. He had recently been exposed to the architecture of Le Corbusier, partly via his friend, the artist René Guiette, whose home in Antwerp was the architect's only building in Belgium. But the heavy, rounded volumes and symmetrical columns still suggest a lingering influence from Stynen's Beaux-Arts training and the Art Deco movement.
The building houses significant art works by René Magritte and Paul Delvaux.

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Sint-Rita 教堂,Harelneke

建筑如同一座被切断的金字塔,这座1966年的小教堂的不同寻常结构有着极其具有欺骗性的复杂形态。墙壁特别薄,只通过内部圆顶结构固定,没有柱子和其它支撑结构。由于建筑形态的复杂性,因此项目的施工被中途叫停,并请了一名混凝土工程专家来协助设计。

该教堂位于Kortrijk外的Zandberg郊区,尽管Stynen希望它保留原始混凝土原色,但它现在被涂成了白色。在建筑物顶部的小平屋顶的一个个小窗户,让光洒进建筑内部。

Sint-Rita Church, Harelneke
Described as a severed pyramid, the unusual structure of this small church from 1966 is deceptively complicated. Ultra-thin walls are kept in place by an internal dome construction, with no columns or additional reinforcements. Construction work was stopped half way through due to concerns about the complicated form, and a concrete engineering specialist was brought in to help the architect retain the shape.
Occupying a site in Zandberg, a suburb just outside Kortrijk, the church is currently painted white, although Stynen had wanted it to remain raw concrete. The single window occupying the small flat roof at the top of the building creates a lighting effect that illuminates the heads and shoulders of the congregation.

比利时建筑师Léon Stynen所留下的那些美好第7张图片


Elsdonck住宅,Wilrijk

在Antwerp的郊区Wilrijk, Elsdonck住宅由Stynen设计,反映了柯布西耶的一些设计理念,住宅下面是零售区域,周围环绕着小型绿地。

该建筑在立面上设有独特的圆形阳台,突出的半圆形围栏里面是窗户和主楼梯。 在建筑的后面,条形玻璃为居民创造了阳光露台。它于1934年完工,一部分建筑于1988年被宣布为保护建筑。

现在整座建筑都被指定为建筑遗产,尽管最开始的绿地有一部分已经不存在了。 它也仍然用作私人住宅,但在Flanders每年一度的开放纪念日可以开放参观。

Residence Elsdonck, Wilrijk
In the Antwerp suburb of Wilrijk, Residence Elsdonck was designed by Stynen to reflect some of the ideals laid out by Le Corbusier, with residences above retail surrounded by a small green space.
The building features distinctive round balconies on the facade house and protruding semi-circular columns of windows contain the main staircases. At the back, long strips of glazing create sun terraces for the residents. Completed in 1934, part of the building was declared a protected monument in 1988.
Today the entire structure is a designated architectural heritage building, although some of the original green space has been lost. It is still occupied by private residents, but tours are possible during Flanders' annual Open Monument Day.

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