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如何在学校的第一次建筑评图中生存
How to Survive Your Very First Critique in Architecture School

由专筑网邢子,李韧编译

对于刚开始学习建筑学的同学来说,“审查团”、“评审”或“批评”远不是什么感到荣耀的事情,它听起来更像是丧钟,而不是通常的评论。就像Kathryn Anthony在《评审团的审判:设计工作室的复兴(Anthony explores in Design Juries on Trial)》中探究的那样,这个概念可以追溯到20世纪80年代,当时巴黎国立美术学院(Ecole Nationale et Speciale de Beaux-Arts)成为第一所尝试这种形式的艺术和建筑学院,该形式很快就被世界各地的建筑学院采用。尽管一些学校已经采取措施来放宽传统的等级制度,但有些学校仍在继续强化这种制度,这让那些还不习惯接受“考验”的新生感到非常害怕。

那么,人们能做些什么来缓解这种在建筑教育中感到相当担忧的方面呢?下列的一些注意事项可以帮助你走出困境。

For the fresh architecture student, the “jury,” “review,” or “crit” is far from glorious—sounding more like a death knell than a customary critique session. The concept, as Kathryn Anthony explores in Design Juries on Trial: The Renaissance of the Design Studio, goes as far back as the 1980s when the Ecole Nationale et Speciale des Beaux-Arts in Paris became the first art and architecture school to experiment with a format that would soon be adopted by architectural schools across the world. While some schools have taken steps to loosen traditional hierarchies, others continuing to reinforce them, much to the terror of fledgling first-year students who aren’t used to being “tried.”
So what can one really do to ease into this rather uncomfortable aspect of architectural education? Below is a fairly simple list of dos and don’ts that could go a long way in helping you out.

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1. 不要把评审员想象成怪物,或是无懈可击的天才

虽然在五年的时间里,你会遇到不同类型的评审员,但最好记住批评你的人,这不一定是为了指出你的设计中的缺陷,或者认为你是一个失败者,他们是为了帮助你更好地学习。不要过分神化评审员,你可能就会感觉不那么急躁了,也更容易接受他们的建议或批评。

2. 闭眼休息一会

什么?当其他人整晚都在埋头于他们的模型和图纸时,你却休息?这听起来可能是毫无用处的建议,但实际上却能创造奇迹!花一整晚的时间工作(除非绝对必要)不仅会适得其反,还会让你变得昏昏沉沉、思维迟钝,更糟糕的是有可能搞砸第二天早上的作品展示。

1.Don’t imagine your juror to be some sort of monster, infallible genius, etc.
While you will come across different types of jurors during the course of five years, it’s best to bear in mind that the person critiquing your first-ever work is not necessarily there to point out the flaws in your design, or deem you a failure, but to help you learn. By allowing yourself to detach the jurors from the god-like status usually associated with them, you’re likely to feel less edgy, and hence, more receptive to their advice or criticism.

2.Get some shut-eye
What? While everyone else is slaving away at their models and drawings throughout the night? This might sound like useless advice, but it actually works wonders! Spending the whole night working (unless absolutely necessary) can not only be counterproductive, but also makes you groggy, less sharp, forgetful, and worse, more likely to mess up explaining your work the following morning.

就要期末交图了?放松心情,来看看关于如何应对评图的建议第3张图片


3. 不要担心“完成”,要考虑“完善”

质量总是要比数量重要,这个建议在整个建筑学学习生涯中都会帮到你。不要看工作室里隔壁那些正以惊人的速度画着图、或者在排版之前把桌子上的模型乱扔一地的同学。评审员很可能一眼就看穿那些空洞的“辛苦工作”,并很快就能说到点子上。通常情况下,即使你展示的是一个不完整但过程完善的设计,也更可能脱颖而出。诚实地对待作品也给了你一个选择,当你着手完成作品集的时候可以在它的基础上继续完善。

4. 不要追求成绩

早期的建筑教育通常最有趣,那时会允许、鼓励并且经常期望你去提出问题,继而进行实践。为什么要浪费时间去追求“合适”或“正确”的评论?担心评审员会怎么想或者考虑你是否能得到好成绩?评审团从来都不客观,所以最好是享受这个过程。

5. 请不要使用不必要的建筑术语

当你渴望炫耀你这学期学到的新术语时,在使用冗长的解释和理论之前要三思。尽量做到简明扼要,因为一些评审员可能很快就会失去耐心或着感到厌烦。更糟的是,如果你使用了一个你也不确定的术语,当你被要求解释其含义时可能会很尴尬。

3.Don’t worry about “complete,” worry about “thorough”
Quality over quantity always works—that’s a tip that can help you throughout all your years in architecture school. Don’t look at the next-door neighbor in the studio who’s churning out drawings at breakneck speed or littering their table with a dozen study models before the pin-up. Jurors are likely to see through all the vacuous “hard work” and would get to the point quickly. More often than not, even if you present a design which is incomplete but thorough in its process, you will come out stronger. Being honest with your work also gives you the option to build on it later when you get down to completing it for your portfolio.

4.Don’t hanker after grades
The earlier years of architectural education are usually the most fun when you’re allowed, encouraged and often expected to question and experiment. Why waste time being “proper” or “correct,” worrying over what your juror might think, or mulling over whether you’ll be able to get a good grade or not? Juries are never objective anyway, so it’s best to enjoy the work instead of stressing out.

5.No unnecessary architectural jargon, please
While you might be itching to flaunt those new terms you learned this semester, think twice before using wordy explanations and overly drawn-out theories. Focus on being succinct as some jurors may run out of patience or get bored quickly. Or worse, if you use a term that you’re unsure of, it could be embarrassing if you’re asked to explain what you mean by it.

就要期末交图了?放松心情,来看看关于如何应对评图的建议第4张图片


6. 解释、推理、提问——但不要为自己辩解

评论会让人感到不安,有时也不公平。但是请记住,清晰的推理总是有效,而带有防御性的行为只会使真正的争论变得复杂并偏离正题。还有,不要害怕问问题,有时这是开始有效讨论的最好方式。

7. 最后,如果事情进展不顺利,请从容应对!

反复遗憾后悔没有用。不如花点时间反思一下讨论的内容,记录下次可以改进的地方,并祝贺自己最终完成,并为下一个设计做得更好而努力!

图片:Andrea Vasquez

6.Explain, reason, question—but don’t get defensive
Crits can be unnerving, and sometimes unfair too. But always remember that clear reasoning works, while defensive behavior only complicates and deflects from the real argument. Also, don't be afraid of asking questions; sometimes, that's the best way to start a productive discussion.

7.And lastly, if it doesn’t go well, just take it in your stride!
No use mulling over the whys and should-haves. Take a moment to reflect on what was discussed, make notes on what you could improve on next time, and congratulate yourself for having made it to the finish line. On to better things in the next project!

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