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埃因霍芬理工大学将建造首座供人居住的3D打印房屋
Eindhoven to build "world’s first" 3D-printed houses that people will live inside

由专筑网王帅,曹逸希编译

埃因霍芬理工大学(Eindhoven University of Technology)宣布将使用3D打印技术建造一系列用于出租的混凝土房屋。

荷兰的这所大学将在未来五年内建造五座3D打印房屋,这些房屋都将作为出租房产,这在世界范围内是首创的。

学校的发言人称:“这是世界上第一个基于3D打印混凝土的商品房项目。这些房产由一家房地产公司购买和出租,它们具备现代的舒适度要求,并将得到充分的利用。

Milestone项目将由市政府,承包商Van Wijnen,Vesteda地产公司,材料制造商Saint Gobain-Weber Beamix和Witteveen+Bos工程公司联合交付。

第一栋房子是一栋单层三卧室平房,预计将于2019年完工。随后会在位于市中心以西Eindhoven的一个邻近机场的新区域Meerhoven建造四座多层住宅。

Eindhoven University of Technology has announced plans to 3D print a series of concrete houses that will be made available to rent.
In what is being described as a world first, the Dutch university is set to build five 3D-printed houses over the next five years, which will all become rental properties.
"The project is the world's first commercial housing project based on 3D-concrete printing," said the university. "The houses will all be occupied, they will meet all modern comfort requirements, and they will be purchased and let out by a real estate company."
Project Milestone will be delivered in partnership with the city municipality, contractor Van Wijnen, real-estate firm Vesteda, materials manufacturer Saint Gobain-Weber Beamix and engineering company Witteveen+Bos.
The first house, expected to complete in 2019, will be a single-storey, three-bedroom bungalow. This will be followed by four multi-level homes on the site in Meerhoven, a new region of Eindhoven located west of the city centre, near the airport.

未来建筑变革的转折点——3D打印混凝土房屋第1张图片

这些住宅将会一个接一个地生产,设计团队也会在建造中不断提高自己。首先,这些建筑会在大学进行建造,然后发展到直接在工地进行建设。

根据设计团队的说法,技术成熟后会在现场进行打印和建造。

埃因霍芬理工大学发布的视频展示了项目的曲面型混凝土墙,阳台凹槽和深险的门窗。

该大学表示:“房屋的设计以绿色景观中的不规则街区为基础,3D打印具备一个关键的特征:可实现任何形状的构造。因此建筑物不规则的形状设计才得以实现。”

The residences will be produced one by one, to allow the team to learn from each build. To start with, elements will be printed at the university, but the aim is to eventually move all construction to the building site.
According to the team, the final house will be fully printed and assembled onsite.
Visuals released by Eindhoven University of Technology show properties that feature curved concrete walls, balcony recesses, and deep-set windows and doors.
"The design of the houses is based on erratic blocks in a green landscape," said the university. "The irregular shape of the buildings can be realised thanks to one of the key features of 3D-printing: the ability to construct almost any shape."

未来建筑变革的转折点——3D打印混凝土房屋第2张图片

近年来,随着研究人员不断开发和完善这项技术,许多3D打印房屋已经被生产出来。

早期的3D打印机器由中国和俄罗斯制造出来,但是荷兰也生产了一些机器,例如美国DUS建筑事务所在阿姆斯特丹建造的一座小房子,荷兰Cybe Construction 3D打印公司在米兰展出的一套展览房屋。

埃因霍芬理工大学也是著名的埃因霍芬设计学院的所在地,他们希望把自己定位为3D打印混凝土的专家。

Theo Salet领导着埃因霍芬理工大学的技术团队,他也是2017年末建造的世界上第一座3D打印混凝土桥的设计人员。

Salet的团队坦言道:“混凝土3D打印技术是建筑业潜在的游戏规则改变者。它除了具备建造任何形状的能力,也使建筑师能够设计非常精细的混凝土结构。”

他们还说道:“混凝土3D打印技术的另一项优势是可持续,它节约了混凝土的用量,从而减少了水泥的消耗,最终减少在水泥生产过程中产生的二氧化碳排放量。”

Numerous 3D-printed houses have been produced in recent years, as researchers continue to develop and refine the technology.
Early prototypes were created in China and Russia, but the Netherlands has also produced several, with examples including a micro house in Amsterdam by DUS Architects and a show home presented in Milan by Dutch 3D-printing company Cybe Construction.
Eindhoven, which is also home to the prestigious Design Academy Eindhoven, is hoping to position itself as a specialist for concrete 3D printing.
The Eindhoven University of Technology team, led by researcher Theo Salet, was also behind the world's first 3D-printed concrete bridge, built in late 2017.
"3D-printing of concrete is a potential game changer in the building industry," added Salet's team. "Besides the ability to construct almost any shape, it also enables architects to design very fine concrete structures."
"Another important advantage is sustainability, as much less concrete is needed and hence much less cement, which reduces the CO2 emissions originating from cement production," they added.

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