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思考:是时候用景观的方式考虑节水了第1张图片


当开普敦的缺水危机到来时,景观设计师能做些什么呢?
As Cape Town heads towards Day Zero what can landscape architects do?

由专筑网pilewyj,李韧编译

开普敦是2010世界杯的主办城市,这里有着“惊人”的自然景观,其中有已干旱3年的泰伯山(Table Mountain),开幕式即将来临时大坝平均水位相比同期增长了13.5 %,并且当地时常断水。 当地市政府对水资源下达了6B级别的限制令,即4月12日起,每人的用水量为50升,但通过城市和居民对节约用水做出的努力,该限制令的执行时间推迟了好几次,现在预计日期为2018年7月15日。政府为人们提供了指导方式、计算器和倒计时仪表板,让居民学习如何减少水的使用,其中包括:
   
  • 必要的时候才冲洗厕所。让住宅、工作场所、学校、健身房、商店等区域的色调变得柔和;
  • 减少淋浴的时间,并且在涂抹沐浴露时关闭水龙头;
  • 保留洗澡等生活用水,再将其用于冲马桶;
  • 洗涤用水可重复使用;
  • 在刷牙、刮胡子时,不要一直开着水龙头,可以用杯子接水;
  • 自然解冻食物,不要把它放在流水下;
  • 禁止灌水。

在过去的几十年中,世界上许多城市都面临着干旱危机,例如圣保罗、墨西哥城、洛杉矶、澳大利亚,因此政府采取了相应的行动,教育和激励人们使用蓄水方案(用容器储水),在未来,随着人口增长、城市愈发发达,世界上的许多城市都面临着水资源缺乏的危机,在这之前,人们是否能够通过景观设计的方式来缓解危机呢?

The city of Cape Town known as the hosting of the 2010 World Cup and known for its amazing landscape including Table Mountain has been in drought for 3 years and is heading towards Day Zeroy when dam levels reach 13,5% and the taps will be turned off in a phased approach. The government has set water restrictions at Level 6b which restricts water to 50 Litres per person as the original Day Zero date was April 12, but through the efforts of city and residents to save water has delayed Day Zero several times and is now predicted to be 15 July 2018. The city has provided guides, calculators and a Day Zero dashboard to educate residents on how to reduce water use including:
  • Only flush the toilet when necessary. Let the yellow mellow at home, work, school, gym, shops, etc.
  • Take very short stop-start showers. Wet your body, turn off the tap, soap, then rinse quickly.
  • Collect your shower, bath and basin water and re-use it to flush your toilet.
  • Wait for a full load before running washing machines and dishwashers. The rinse water from some washing machines can be re-used for the next wash cycle.
  • Use a cup instead of running taps in the bathroom or kitchen when brushing teeth, shaving, drinking, etc.
  • Defrost foods in the fridge or naturally, rather than placing it under running water.
  • Irrigation Prohibited

As many cities around the world face drought at different times in the last decade including Sao Paolo, Mexico City, Los Angeles, most large cities in Australia which have required governments to take action with education programs and incentive schemes for water storage (tanks), grey water systems along with education programs. The world and its major cities are facing the possibility of reduced or no water in the future as populations grow as people move towards cities. Before more cities reach crisis point we as landscape architects need to look at how we can avoid Day Zero and so as landscape architects what can we do?

思考:是时候用景观的方式考虑节水了第2张图片


设计
  • 利用水的设计原则,使用地下水以及其他含水区域,例如雨水花园、沼泽、湿地等;
  • 通过设置污染过滤井、蓄水池塘,再结合其他自然或机械元素来缓解水污染;
  • 种植需水量低的植物;
  • 采用透水材料铺装,例如碎石、透水路面等;
  • 充分利用当地植物;
  • 通过土壤添加剂减少水分流失;
  • 减少游泳池的尺寸;
  • 运用低能耗照明方式,或运用太阳能系统;
  • 减少地区草坪,减少灌溉需求;
  • 安装储水空间。

效率
  • 种植需水量低的植物;
  • 以水资源需求量来分配植物;
  • 使用低流量的灌溉水箱;
  • 将灌溉时间设定在19:00点后或6:00之前;
  • 使用覆盖物品减少水分蒸发;
  • 增加土壤中的有机物或无机物,提升保水性能。

存储
  • 利用地面雨水箱(这对于住宅和学校来说成本较低);
  • 包括地下广场及停车场的地下储水系统;
  • 设置雨水存储系统;运用湿地来储存水。

教育
  • 让人们了解节水景观的重要性及设计原则,从而减少水的使用;
  • 组织当地社区与学校,教授节水做法;
  • 分发Maintenance Manuals项目中的相关灌溉信息,让人们了解到最佳节水时间。

Design
  • Utilising water design principles that capture water and replenish groundwater and aquifers often referred to as WSUD, SUDS, LiDs. (rain gardens, swales, wetlands, etc)
  • Reduce points for water pollution by installing gross pollutant traps, retention ponds and other natural and mechanical elements to reduce waterway pollution.
  • Using trees and plants with low water requirements
  • Use pervious materials for paving (gravel, pervious/permeable pavements, etc)
  • Design for the local conditions using local plants
  • Specify soil additives to increase water retention
  • Eliminate or reduce the size of swimming pools
  • Specify low energy lighting or solar/battery systems to reduce energy requirements (some power plants use between 100-400 gallons of water per megawatt hour)
  • Reduce areas of turf to reduce irrigation requirements
  • Allow space for installing water storage (tanks or grey water)

Efficiency
  • Design with plants with low water requirements
  • Group plants based on water needs
  • Using low-flow or subsurface irrigation that utilises water tanks or grey water
  • Set irrigation times for after 19:00 or before 6:00
  • Use mulch to reduce evaporation
  • Ensure soils contain organic matter or inorganic matter to increase water retention

Storage
  • Using above ground rain tanks (low cost for residential and schools)
  • Including below ground storage under plazas and carparks (commercial, offices, etc)
  • Specifying a rain or greywater system
  • Creating (or Protecting) wetlands to purify and store water

Education
  • Educate clients on the importance of water-efficient landscapes and the design principles that you can use to reduce their water usage
  • Work with your local schools and communities organisations to educate them on water-efficient practices
  • Provide notes in project Maintenance Manuals in relation to best times to irrigate (evening-early morning)


思考:是时候用景观的方式考虑节水了第3张图片


以上只是粗略的节水策略,景观设计师应该更多地了解该如何将这些策略落到实地,许多城市政府和规划部门为市民和景观设计师提供了许多高效的实用方式,这些方式能够提高用水效率。 通过景观设计的方式能够缓解城市紧张的缺水危机,同时,人们也需要从宏观的层面上做出努力与改变,保护水资源,甚至可以通过法律的形式提升水源的使用效率。

This list of improvements and design techniques is not exhaustive and as landscape architects, we should look at how we can assist at a local, state and national level.  Many cities and governments water and planning authorities offer educational material for landscape architects and residents on best design practices to improve water efficiency. Landscape architects can assist in reducing the possibility for a water-stressed city, however, we also need to also work with cities in the urban design and planning initiatives to ensure that waterways are retained and protected and that they include water sustainable design principles into all legislation and projects.

思考:是时候用景观的方式考虑节水了第4张图片


全球人口密度日益增加,水系统的污染程度也日益增大,景观设计师需要积极应对这些出现在这个专业领域和日常生活中的问题。试着为自己设定一定的用水量,以此切身体会水资源短缺危机。

As the world grapples with increasing densities and populations, therefore, increasing pollution and stress on water systems we as landscape architects need to take ownership of the issue in our professional and daily lives. Set yourself the Day Zero challenge and try to use only 50 litres(13.2/11 gallons) of water a day to understand the future many cities will face.


出处:本文译自worldlandscapearchitect.com/,转载请注明出处。

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