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本文转载自 乐居设计师俱乐部

这个世界上有很多著名的歌剧院和一部又一部的著名歌剧一样它们也如同一部独唱曲一般永远这自己的特色

「韩国釜山歌剧院国际竞赛」吸引了来自世界各地知名建筑事务所,包括扎哈和福斯特在内的多家事务所参与了这次国际竞赛,第一名却被「挪威Snøhetta」拿走了。

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它以独特而革新性的造型,在当代建筑领域中拥有特殊的地位。光滑的弯曲线条对应了海岸线上起伏的波涛。行人能够走到歌剧院的屋顶,在灯塔的照耀下欣赏整个海景。先来看视频:



Snøhetta 事务所介绍:这是一个可达性和参与性很高的空间,水天一线,山水相连,城市也和大海相接,彰显出釜山与世界交流的意愿。奥斯陆歌剧院

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该建筑以其复杂的外貌及内部构造嵌入城市,却以浑然天成的姿态融于城市生活,并与周围环境完美融合。奥斯陆歌剧院具有绝对的开放性,其屋顶及立面为可上人开放区域。它如破土而出的巨人,却又表现出足够的亲和力,来访者可以拾级而上,直达歌剧院顶端,远眺奥斯陆市政厅。或者倚靠在舒缓的屋面坡度之上,观赏海上表演。The project developed a highly complex program into a simple general plan that integrated both a practical and intuitive sculptural approach to modeling the exterior form. Its low slung form became a link within the city rather than a divisive sculptural expression. Its accessible roof and broad, open public lobbies make the building a social monument rather than a sculptural one.

▼建筑全貌,view of the building © Jens Passoth

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奥斯陆歌剧院是该地区城市革新项目的第一项工程,2010年该地区的地面交通改建成峡湾之下的隧道。歌剧院以其庞大的建筑体量和强大的视觉吸引力,于周围环境中突显出来,而其巨大的,由大理石铺面的屋顶也成为开放的居民活动之所。The opera house is the first element in the planned transformation of this area of the city. In 2010 the heavy traffic besides the building will be moved into a tunnel under the fjord. Due to its size and aesthetic expression, the opera house will stand apart from other buildings in the area. The marble clad roofs cape forms a large public space in the landscape of the city and the fjord.

▼舞动的平面,the wave wall © Gerald Zugmann

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歌剧院的主要开放立面面向西、北两边,与此同时它美丽的外表于千里之外的峡湾也尽显独特之处,于Akershus皇宫远眺,歌剧院将峡湾与Ekerberg山脉连成一片。从中央车站及查尔斯大街广场望去,歌剧院以其简单的轮廓描绘出迷人的峡湾景色。歌剧院连接峡湾,城市风光及自然风景。向东望去,歌剧院轮廓清晰而多变。The public face of the opera house faces west and north – while at the same time, the building’s profile is clear from a great distance from the fjord to the south. Viewed from the Akershus castle and from the grid city the building creates a relationship between the fjord and the Ekerberg hill to the east. Seen from the central station and Chr. Fredriks sq., the opera catches the attention with a falling which frames the eastern edge of the view of the fjord and its islands. The building connects city and fjord, urbanity and landscape. To the East, the ‘factory’ is articulated and varied.

▼白色大理石铺面,the white marble © Gerald Zugmann

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对挪威人来说歌剧和芭蕾仍然是非常新颖的艺术形式,然而这种艺术却以一种生动鲜活的形式展现在挪威乃至世界人面前。作为城市滨海区的一部分,Bjørvika半岛自古以来就是挪威与世界交流相汇之处。陆地与海洋在此处的交融是真实存在的也是象征意味的世界之门。它是海港与城市的分界线,是挪威走向世界的入口 ,也是艺术与城市生活的开端。Opera and ballet are young art forms in Norway. These art forms evolve in an international setting. The Bjørvika peninsula is part of a harbour city, which is historically the meeting point with the rest of the world. The dividing line between the ground ’here’ and the water ‘there’ is both a real and a symbolic threshold. This threshold is realised as a large wall on the line of the meeting between land and sea, Norway and the world, art and everyday life. This is the threshold where the public meet the art.

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它是建筑,是景观,亦是城市公共生活的一部分。面向街道的立面开口,让行人可以一探室内排演究竟。建筑同时为非音乐剧及芭蕾爱好者安排了其他功能。直通海边的咖啡屋及纪念品商店给来者提供餐饮及购物服务,其零售业的收入也成为维系歌剧院日常运营的一部分。建筑将简单元素运用于大胆的设计之中,使各个空间无缝衔接,毫无违和感。作为优秀的获奖作品,奥斯陆歌剧院的设计理念可以从几个方面体现。The building is as much landscape as architecture and thus fosters public awareness and engagement with the arts. Generous windows at street level provide the public a glimpse of the scenery workshop activities. The building still finds an audience with public who are not opera, ballet or orchestra fans. The cafes and gift shop, with their access to the waterfront are destinations which offer opportunities to generate revenue for the institution while providing a general public amenity. Care was taken with the design of these components so that they are seamlessly integrated into the overall character of the building’s bold design. The opera house is the realisation of the winning competition entry. Four diagrams, which were part of the entry, explain the building’s basic concept.

▼大厅休息处,the entrance hall  © Gerald Zugmann

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该项目一个重要设计原则之一,是保证高品质的建造质量,并使其成为奥斯陆的标志性建筑。设计师将公共性和开放性作为该建筑的设计理念,旨在体现其与民为乐的建筑形态,因此建筑展现为地毯式外貌,它覆盖与地面之上,缓缓揭开歌剧院神秘的面纱,市民可以轻松的踏入歌剧院周边,在不觉中便踏上博物馆建筑。这种与城市景观相呼应的形式在水平方向平铺开来,使其成为奥斯陆的美丽名片。该建筑的设计理念形成包括三个重要的元素:层叠的外墙,内部规划,及毯形外貌。The competition brief stated that the opera house should be of high architectural quality and should be monumental in its expression. One idea stood out as a legitimation of this monumentality: the concept of togetherness, joint ownership, easy and open access for all. To achieve a monumentality based on these notions we wished to make the opera accessible in the widest possible sense, by laying out a ‘carpet’ of horizontal  and sloping surfaces on top of the building. This carpet has been given an articulated form, related to the cityscape. Monumentality is achieved through horizontal extension and not verticality. The conceptual basis of the competition, and the final building, is a combination of these three elements – The wave wall, the factory and the carpet.

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歌剧院的景观规划除了大理石屋顶,大理石公共活动空间,还包括与城市繁华区之间的街道及景观规划。主入口与进入广场的入口设置在大理石桥下,主广场连接建筑的西面与北面,形成公共开放广场,又进而演变成位于Aker River之上的面向东面的桥面平台。各层面展现出交错的堆叠形式。设计师在设计之初就确定了屋顶作为市民观景平台的理念,并确定了其白色石头覆盖的表面特性。The opera’s landscape comprises of the marble roof, additional marble clad areas, and the areas between the building and the surrounding streets. Access to the plaza and the main entrance is over a marble clad footbridge over the opera canal. The plaza forms a part of a public promenade and cycle lane which continues around the west and south sides of the building, and eventually coming to a planned bridge over the Aker River to the east. As early as the competition entry, Snøhetta proposed that the roof scape should be openly accessible to the general public and that it should be clad with white stone.

▼坡道,ramp way © Helene Binet

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▼楼梯间,staircase  © Jiri Havran

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如今该建筑屋顶以变化的几何形态栖息于城市腹地完美诠释了设计师的种种构想。此外,为了营造内部的视听效果,建筑屋顶较主平面稍稍升起,打造了一个全新的观景平台。尽管有些坡度略陡,坐在轮椅上的人仍然可以乘坐直梯到达该平台顶部。建筑周身覆盖的白色大理石La Facciata来自意大利卡拉拉地区,而所有与海水接触的岩石部分以及北立面石面均采用来自挪威的Ice Green花岗岩。建筑外貌的设计也离不开设计师与艺术家的合作。To achieve enough acoustic volume in the auditorium, the roof has been raised independently inside the line of the balustrades. This has created a new viewing point from which the city and the fjord can be experienced. The roofs are mostly too steep for wheelchair use but access to the near at, upper areas is provided via a dedicated elevator. The surface treatment of the stone, its pattern, cuts and lifts which create a shadow play have been designed in close collaboration with the artists. The white marble is ‘La Facciata’ from the Carrara quaries in Italy. The north facade and all the stone cladding which is in contact with water is a Norwegian granite called ’Ice Green’.

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设计师对整个项目进行了完整的设计和试验,然后才对颜色及材料的细微差异和表面纹理进行了选择和处理。整个施工及生产过程实施了良好的质量控制体系。建筑与相邻环境快速且必要的衔接成为设计的最重要部分之一。Prototypes and tests at full scale were studied at the contractor’s facilities before the final choices were made for colour nuance and surface texture. A running quality control regime has been implemented throughout the production process. Adjacent areas During the building period it became clear that rapid and considerable settling of the ground level around the building would need to be addressed.

▼演出大厅,concert hall © Helene Binet

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环绕建筑的大面积砾石平面用作交通道路,由于建筑构架在基岩之上,使这种处理方式变得相对简单。树木种植在该砾石区域,街道小品沿地面铺装而设,周围环绕着停车场,以及具有独特设计的不锈钢街灯。地面由沥青铺面,沿边铺设花岗岩以定界限,这种大面积的花岗岩铺面强调了步入餐厅,歌剧院大街及舞台的入口。深灰色的地面色调,纯白的大理石建筑外貌及铝制配景形成鲜明的对比。景观设计由Snøhetta与Bjørvika合作完成,Bjørvika同时被委任进行歌剧院周围街道设计。Large areas of gravel which is designed to take local vehicular traffic have been laid around the building footprint. This is easy to adjust as the ground sinks relative to the building which is founded on the bedrock. Trees are planted in the gravel areas, and a zone of street furniture is located along the pavement line with cycle parking, benches and specially designed street lamps in stainless steel. The pavements are of asphalt with black granite edges and larger areas of granite paving to highlight the entrances to the restaurant, opera street, and stage entrance. The dark grey colour palette is a clear contrast to the light stone and aluminium of the building itself within a cool monochrome language. Landscaping of the surrounding areas has been designed in collaboration between Snøhetta and Bjørvika Infrastructure who have been responsible for the planning of the street around the opera house.

▼排练室,workshop © Jiri Havran

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作为竞标的一部分,设计师还附加了许多细节设计。Snøhetta意在将奥斯陆歌剧院设计成独立自由的建筑,使其在施工及后期使用过程中都能保持良好的功能性与足够的灵活性。各空间之间的协调性以及与使用者的契合度被证明是建筑设计中乃至使用过程中最重要的部分。一些必要的改动使建筑在使用过程中更加高效且不损害建筑形态。人可以轻易的窥探到室内的活动:芭蕾舞厅位于上层,排演室位于街道平面层,其未来街区与城市生活的进一步联系将更增其与居民生活的融合性。
A detailed brief was developed as a basis for the competition. Snøhetta proposed that the production facilities of the opera house should be realized as a self- contained, rationally planned ‘factory’. This factory should be both functional and flexible during the planning phase as well as in later use. This flexibility has proved to be very important during the planning phase: a number of rooms and room groups have been adjusted in collaboration with the end user. These changes have improved the buildings functionality without affecting the architecture. One can see the activities within the building: Ballet rehearsal rooms at the upper levels, workshops at street level. The future connection to a living and animated new part of town will give a greater sense of urbanity.

设计公司:Snøhetta
位置:挪威
类型:剧院文化建筑
材料:大理石木材





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