网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第1张图片

7 Futuristic Fabrications Leading Us Towards a Newer Architecture

由专筑网Ann,刘庆新编译

在这个数字化和信息化的时代,建筑行业在过去十年受到了评论家称之为“第三次工业革命”的深刻影响。工艺与伦理的问题频繁出现在目前的建筑语言中,采用了这些新技术的项目通常被指责为毫无意义、肆意妄为的。另一方面,一些利用新技术和计算机应用参与设计的建筑项目,能够更好的协调城市与人的关系,它们对“第三次工业革命”持乐观态度。
  
勒柯布西耶的现代主义设计手册——《走向新建筑》揭示了设计拥有更广阔的前景和视野,在80年后的现在,我们收集了从技术到工艺与美学领域的7个项目来论证新技术给建筑行业带来的改变。

Swept up in an age of digitization and computing, architecture has been deeply affected in the past decade by what some critics are calling “The Third Industrial Revolution.” With questions of craft and ethics being heavily present in the current architectural discourse, projects taking advantage of these new technologies are often criticized for their frivolous or indulgent nature. On the other hand, there has been an emergence of work that exemplifies the most optimistic of this “Third Industrial Revolution” – an architecture that appropriates new technology and computation for the collective good of our cities and people.
We’ve collected 7 of these projects, ranging from exemplars of engineering to craft and artistry; projects that 80 years after Le Corbusier’s modernist handbook hint at a further horizon – towards a newer architecture.


1.  Hy-Fi设计方案

Hy-Fi橙色塔是美国P.S.1青年建筑师设计大赛2014年冠军方案,Living建筑工作室在该项目中采用了生物砖——一种真菌环保材料。这种技术过去被Ecovative公司应用在小型产品包装上,The Living嗅到了这项技术在建筑应用行业的潜力,在工程顾问公司Arup的帮助下,应用该技术研制出了一种生物砖。建筑造型则应用了参数化设计来减少材料成本优化建筑结构。

1. Hy-Fi / The Living
The winner of MoMA PS1's annual Young Architects’ Program contest, Hy-Fi by The Living is a structure built from bricks of fungus. Though the technology for the bricks had been in use previously at smaller scales, such as in product packaging by by Ecovative, The Living saw the potential for applications in architecture and with the help of engineers at Arup, produced the bricks for this installation. The form was generated using a parametric software to minimize materials for maximum structural integrity as well.


2.  阿拉伯式花纹墙/ michael hansmeyer+benjamin dillenburger

引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第2张图片
Arabesque Wall/阿拉伯式花纹墙。Image © Hansmeyer/DIllenburger

阿拉伯式花纹墙高达三米,拥有超过2亿个不同的表面,实验性地试图寻求参数化设计和数字制造在形式上的限制。项目采用了数字化设计和3D打印技术,展现了计算机技术极端复杂的计算能力,开辟了一个新的领域——尽管并不是完全出于功能性与实用主义——但论证了计算机技术具备超过人类传统手工艺的高品质与细节水平。项目目前处于实验阶段,但阿拉伯式花纹墙的出现暗示了高度定制化趋势的巨大潜力。

2. Arabesque Wall / Michael Hansmeyer & Benjamin Dillenburger
Testing the limits of form finding in parametric design and digital fabrication, the Arabesque Wall is a 3-meter-tall ornamented wall with over 200 million individual surfaces. Devised through algorithmic design and 3D-printed, the project demonstrates the extreme capabilities of computational design, creating a piece that – though not necessarily functional – maintains a quality and level of detail that exceeds human craftsmanship. Although a highly experimental project on its own, the Arabesque Wall seems to exemplify the growing trend of high customization.


3.  程式化墙体/苏黎世联邦理工大学

引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第3张图片
Programmed Wall/程式化墙体。Image via ETH Zurich

该项目利用机器人手臂按照预设的逻辑生成模式铺砌了一面砖墙,机器人按照相应的逻辑打造出预设的建筑形式。虽然砖石技术是一个讲求经验与熟练程度的领域,但一些机器人已经实现了自动化的普通砖铺设,这并不意味着传统匠人的淘汰,而是把他们从普通劳动中解放出来,专注于机器人目前不能完成的更加艺术性、更高水平的重点领域。

3. The Programmed Wall / ETH Zurich
Using a robot arm, The Programmed Wall features a series of logics defined by students in the laying of a brick wall. A robot in turn interprets this logic to produce an architectonic form. Although masonry is traditionally a highly skilled trade, other robots in the field have largely automated rank-and-file brick laying. However, rather than making masons obsolete, it has complemented them, allowing them to focus on more artful, high-focus areas of bricklaying that robots cannot adapt to.


4.  装置艺术作品“Labrys Frisae”/  THEVERYMANY

引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第4张图片
Labrys Frisae Pavilion at Miami Art Basel/迈阿密艺术博览会设计的艺术装置“Labrys Frisae”。Image Courtesy of MARK FORNES/THEVERYMANY

日益发达的计算机技术在结构实现方面具有突出的优势,它能够完成传统思维模式难以胜任的及其复杂的形式模拟。THEVERYMANY为迈阿密艺术博览会设计的大型艺术装置“Labrys Frisae”就是采用了计算机技术,使用纤薄的材料实现了自支撑体,同时完全不影响其结构完整性,毫无疑问,它的造型令人兴奋,可以说是它最大的优势来自于性能:减少材料使用:Labrys Frisae的铝板厚度不足1毫米。

4. Labrys Frisae Pavilion / THEVERYMANY
A major advantage of increasing computation is the ability to structurally engineer complex forms that would be impossible with traditional, analog methods. The Labrys Frisae Pavilion by THEVERYMANY for Miami Art Basel used software to compute a self-supporting form made of thin sheets of material. While self-supporting structures like the Labrys Frisae undoubtedly have exciting forms, arguably their greatest merit comes from their ability to reduce material use: the Labrys Frisae Pavilion was constructed of sheets of aluminium less than 1 millimeter thick.


5.  岩穴桑拿房/ Partisans

引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第5张图片
Partisans - Grotto Sauna/岩穴桑拿房。Image © Johnathan Friedman

多伦多工作室Partisans在休伦湖畔打造了一个岩穴桑拿房,模糊了传统建造工艺与数字化技术的界限。流线型的室内设计是结合手绘与数字模型共同打造的——草图加CNC模型。除了常见的数字信息技术以外,在项目中Partisans也运用工艺技术与模拟和数字设计结合的方式。

5. Grotto Sauna / Partisans
Blurring the lines between traditional craftsmanship and digital fabrication, the Grotto by Toronto’s Partisans is a sauna on the coast of Lake Huron. The project's fluid interiors were developed through a combination of hand and digital modeling, as well as sketching and CNC milling. Despite their frequent use of digital fabrication methods, Partisans maintains a level of craft to their work by using a mixture of analog and digital design processes.


6.  苔藓光电板/ Elena Mitrafanova

引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第6张图片
Moss Voltaics/苔藓光电板。Image © Elena Mitrofanova

该项目采用生物光电技术打造出一个模数化系统,利用苔藓内的自由电子促进自身生长。初步实验项目之所以使用苔藓,是因为它是能够在都市中旺盛生长的植物品种之一。当然,这项技术理论上适用于任何植物,不同品种植物效率不一,这将有可能为解决环境问题提供一个具有美学元素的解决方案。

6. Moss Voltaics / Elena Mitrafanova
Using bio-photovoltaics, this project harnesses free electrons produced in the growth of moss, using a modular system that encourages their growth. As moss is one of the few plants that can thrive in urban conditions, it was selected for this initial experimentation. However, the wall functions with any plants, to varying degrees of effectiveness, potentially introducing an aesthetic element to an environmental solution.


7.  Eco BLAC生态砖/麻省理工研究实验室

引领建筑发展的七项未来主义制造技术第7张图片
Eco-Blac Bricks/Eco BLAC生态砖。Image Courtesy of MIT Tata Center

采用先进技术在建筑上通常体现出奢华大气之感,但或许在一些贫瘠地区采用新技术,所获得收益更加可观。麻省理工的学生利用锅炉灰——燃烧廉价能源材料产生的副产品——研制出一种称为Eco BLAC的新型砖,规避了印度目前面临的两个重要问题:处理锅炉灰的大量垃圾填埋场和砖窑产生的大量有害气体。Eco-BLAC生态砖的设计尽管似乎看起来并不高端,但却是多年来材料科学和化学应用的最实用的技术体现,具有广泛的生态影响力和推广潜力。

7. Eco-BLAC Brick / MIT Research Lab
Though technological advances in architecture are often expressed extravagantly, the benefits of embracing these advances can often be felt strongest in some of the humblest areas. Using boiler ash, a by-product of burning cheap materials for energy, Eco-BLAC bricks developed by MIT circumvent two problems simultaneously – the extensive landfills created by boiler ash, and the destructive practice of clay-fired bricks that is currently prevalent in India. Though humble, the Eco-BLAC brick is the culmination of years of material science and chemistry, with the potential for widespread ecological impact.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (10351 articles)


建筑新闻 (200 articles)


3D打印 (43 articles)


计算机 (7 articles)


数字化 (15 articles)