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六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第1张图片


The Hex House - A Rapid Deployment, Dignified Disaster Shelter

由专筑网雷军,刘庆新编译

项目描述

随着难民庇护所在全球流行开来,社会建筑家已经为设计住房问题提供解决方法。六角屋的设计不仅降低了施工成本,还能便捷的分割成单间,这受到住户们的喜爱。很重要的一点就是,它能成为难民们的长期住所,同时也保护了他们的尊严。

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
With the prevalence of refugee displacement across the globe, Architects For Society has embarked on designing housing solutions that help alleviate and overcome many of the problems associated with current temporary refugee shelters. The Hex House is not only low cost and can be shipped in pieces to be easily assembled by the end user, equally as important, it is also long term and dignified!

作为一个非营利性的,聚集来自美国、欧洲和中东的建筑专业人士的团队,AFS身负重任,他们通过设计新颖架构来提升弱势地区环境美观。近期,AFS在瑞典哥德堡查尔姆斯理工大学和约旦的叙利亚难民营迅速展开防护原型。在利用绝缘金属面板技术的基础上而进行的设计,是六角屋设计原型的动力。

As a group of allied professionals from the US, Europe and the Middle East, AFS is a non-profit design practice with a mission to enhance the built environment of disadvantaged communities through innovative architecture and design. AFS recently worked with Chalmers University in Gothenburg, Sweden to develop a rapidly deployable shelter prototype for Syrian refugees in Alzaatari Camp in Jordan. This collaboration was the impetus for developing the Hex House prototype, which is based on the insulated metal panel technology that’s widely used in emergency shelter construction in the camp.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第2张图片

六角屋是低成本、可持续、施工便捷、可供长期居住和让人不失尊严的房子,深受住户喜爱。其基本建筑构件为镀锌钢管、墙体、楼板、屋面的结构隔热金属板,可与传统的内外饰面进行定制。

六边形结构和绝缘板刚性结构的内在结构稳定性(SIP)起到了绝对的支撑作用。墙和屋顶板设计成起独立支撑的作用,整体榫槽连接,形成一个刚性结构的外壳。

The hex house is conceived as a low cost, sustainable, rapidly deployable, long term and dignified house which is shipped in pieces and assembled by the end users. The basic building components are galvanized tube steel for the base, structural insulated metal panel for walls, floor and roof and can be customized with conventional interior and exterior finishes.
The inherent structural stability of the hexagonal form and the rigid construction of Structural Insulated Panels (SIP) precludes the use of added structural support. The wall & roof panels are designed to be self-supporting and when locked together with integral tongue & groove joints, form a rigid structural shell.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第3张图片

40 SM六角形设计成各种组合的集群,还有共享的外部花园或绿地。无论是线性或径向,这些集群都是对外开放的。每个单元可以简单地布置为另一个适当的模式,或者他们可以充分利用墙壁增强的热性能。它们也可以组合成较大的单元。

40SM(431SF)的单元是一个紧凑的双卧室结构,囊括所有家居设施,这是为小型家庭设计的。室内墙是不连接到天花板,以适应原有的房屋布局,并提供自然通风。

The 40 SM hexagonal plan can be combined into various combinations of clusters that enclose shared exterior gardens or green space. Whether linear or radial, these clusters can be oriented to allow for accessible drives and pedestrian walkways. Units can simply be arranged next to one another in appropriate patterns or they can be joined and share walls for enhanced thermal performance. They can also be combined to form larger units.
The 40 SM (431 SF) unit is a compact two bedroom home with all the amenities intended for small families. Interior walls are not attached to the ceiling to accommodate customization of layout and provide natural ventilation.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第4张图片

两个单元可以合并为一个较大的80SM(862SF)“双单元”,以满足更大的家庭所需。这种房型可以容纳三个或四个卧室。这样的设计既灵活又忠于原型,存在着许多内部规划的潜在可能性。

墙壁、屋顶和地板是由刚性泡沫保温材料制成,夹在两片钢片之间,称为隔热板结构。所有的外墙板都是相同的尺寸3M(9 - 10”)×4m(13 - 2),还有一些各异的门窗。屋顶和地板的尺寸也在标准化,确保生产效率,包装和运输效率。

Two units can be combined into one larger ‘double’ unit of 80 SM (862 SF) to accommodate larger families. This combination can accommodate 3 or four bedrooms. With an emphasis on flexibility and customization, there are many interior planning possibilities.
The walls, roof and floor are fabricated from rigid foam insulation sandwiched between two sheets of steel known as Structural Insulated Panel (SIP). All exterior wall panels have the same dimension 3M (9’-10”) x 4M (13’-2”) with some variations for door and window openings. The roof and floor panel sizes are also standardized, insuring efficiency in fabrication, packing and transportation.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第5张图片

每150毫米(6“)厚的绝缘金属墙体/屋顶板锁在一起,使用一个内置的榫槽锁紧接头。面板是独立设计。外墙可以包水泥渲染(粉刷),木材包层,或使用其他材料的机械紧固件。150mm(6“)面板具有054(r18.5)的U值。

墙壁上有一个六角的钢框架,周长为6,一个中心支撑。可调高度的支座材料是混凝土墩。施工人员通过钻孔连接钢螺栓。地板上的面板固定在顶部,以水平线支撑。

Each 150mm (6") thick insulated metal wall/ roof panel is locked together using a built-in tongue and groove locking joint. The panels are designed to be self-supporting and don't require additional structure. The exterior walls can then be clad with cement render (stucco), wood cladding, or other materials using typical mechanical fasteners. The 150mm (6") panel has a U-value of .054 (R18.5)
The walls are supported on a hexagonal steel frame with six perimeter and one center support. The supports which are height adjustable are anchored to concrete pier foundations. The structural steel base members are connected with steel bolts through predrilled holes. The floor panels are then fixed on top and span from one horizontal support to the other.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第6张图片

利用简单的工具和少量的训练,使居民们可以运用简单的施工方法,方便而快捷。所有的组件都是由拖车进行包装和发运。一个拖车的平均容量为三个单元。

雨水通过集成水槽形成下水落管系统。它被过滤到一个分级储蓄容器中,泵入房子,随后将其冲洗。还有一种可饮用水也是储存于手动泵。这两个容器的原理都是由地球的自然热容量和房子本身绝缘性质。

The simple construction method of the Hex House facilitates full assembly by the inhabitants, using simple tools and a little training. All the components are designed to be packed and shipped flat in conventional transport trailer. The average capacity of one trailer can easily accommodate three units.
Rain water is carried through an integrated gutter and down a downspout system. It’s filtered into a sub-grade storage tank where it’s manually pumped back into the house by point of use hand pumps to be used for washing and flushing. There is also a refillable potable water storage tank below grade that’s also manually pumped. Both tanks are insulated by earth’s natural thermal capacity and sheltered by the house itself.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第7张图片

房子的两旁有两只通风竖井。空气被隔板转移到地面的开口处,通过储蓄容器中的轴散发出来。然后,空气通过堆栈效应移动,并且可以通过一个排气孔在室内墙壁和外部循环运行。太阳能电池板为照明和小型电子设备提供辅助电源。六角形屋顶是最佳的太阳能电池板的存放位置,以三个面向太阳的最大入射率穿过天空。

室内空间设计由现代化的设备完成,简单,功能性强,并且雅致。有着石膏板、竹地板、瓷砖浴室地板、竹厨房橱柜和厨房橱柜。

There are two ventilation shafts on opposite sides of the house. Air is diverted by operable baffles into floor openings, travels up the shaft and out through registers in the space. The air then moves up though the space via the stack effect and is allowed to circulate above interior walls and out through an operable exhaust vent. Solar panels provide supplementary power for lighting and small electronics. The hexagonal roof allows for optimal solar panel placement, with three surfaces oriented for maximum solar incidence as the sun moves across the sky.
The interior spaces are designed with all the modern conveniences and are finished with simple, functional and elegant finishes. Gypsum walls, bamboo plank floors, ceramic tile bathroom floors, bamboo kitchen cabinets and solid surface kitchen counters.

六角屋——施工快捷,有尊严的避难所第8张图片

该六角屋的设计是一个灵活解决方案,这不仅是迅速部署,住户自己能够建造,也是有尊严的家庭设计。房子是专为流离失所的人群,如难民,天然/人造灾害急救防护和独立的生活设计的。具有被动、技术要求低和耐久性的外壳和底座,它可以承担的入住率在15至20年的范围。其灵活性使用户能够使他们的生活空间更具个性化。

The Hex House is designed to be a scalable solution which is not only rapidly deployed and erected by non-builders, but is also dignified with typical home amenities. The house is designed for displaced population such as refugees, natural/ manmade disaster emergency shelter and off the grid living. With passive and low tech features and durability of exterior shell and base, it can endure extended occupancy form 15 to 20 years. Most of all the flexibility of the system affords the end user the ability to personalize their living spaces both inside and out.

出处:本文译自www.architectmagazine.com/,转载请注明出处。


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