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自然降温:为何被动式遮阳和通风将改变未来建筑的外观第1张图片

由专筑网Brick,许航,卢荣姝编译

最小化能源消耗的需求影响建筑的许多方面,而采用传统或尖端的遮阳设备和通风方法的设计处于减少空调依赖的最前沿。Architonic考察了一些生态创新项目。

The need to minimise energy consumption affects many aspects of architecture, and designs that employ traditional or cutting-edge shading devices and ventilation methods are at the forefront of reducing our reliance on air conditioning. Architonic examines some ecologically innovative projects.

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万达瑞华酒店外立面由美克建筑事务所 ( Make Architects )设计,以902块反光铝模块覆盖,成向下的角度,能有效降低太阳能辐射并阻止不必要的反射进入房间。

窗户在建筑的设计中扮演很多重要角色,允许光线照射进来,同时阻止坏天气进入,隔离室内,同时允许看到周围环境。然而,过去20年用玻璃覆盖整个建筑的趋势对环境有负面的影响,这种影响已经引起了建筑界的反应。现在,建筑师在进行结构设计时,采用被动遮阳和通风的方法来控制建筑的室内环境,来取代原来的建造水晶塔来吸收热量并依赖机械设备降温。

英国建筑师肯•沙特沃斯(Ken Shuttleworth)在伦敦福斯特建筑事务所工作30年间,接触过许多全玻璃建筑,包括伦敦市政厅和圣玛丽斧街30号。在最近一次BBC广播4台的采访中,他说这种方法已经失去了适用性,并呼吁更可靠的替代物“以满足新的建筑规则,实现到2019年零碳排放的目标,我们不得不减少建筑物窗户的数量,否则玻璃工业必须想出新的产品,”沙特沃斯建议。

The facade of the Wanda Reign Hotel by Make Architects is covered in 902 reflective aluminium modules, which are angled downwards to reduce solar gain and unwanted reflections inside the rooms.
Windows perform many important roles in a building’s design; allowing light to enter while keeping bad weather out, insulating the interior while allowing views of the surroundings. However, the trend of the past two decades for covering entire buildings in glazing has negative environmental implications that have provoked a reaction from the architectural community. Rather than crystal towers that trap heat and rely on mechanical cooling, architects are designing structures that employ passive methods of shading and ventilation to control a building’s interior environment.During 30 years at London studio Foster + Partners, British architect Ken Shuttleworth worked on many all-glass buildings, including London’s City Hall and 30 St Mary Axe. In a recent interview on BBC Radio 4 he said that this approach has lost its relevance and called for more responsible alternatives. “To meet the new building regulations, to meet zero carbon by 2019, we have to reduce the amount of windows in buildings, or the glass industry has to come up with new products,” Shuttleworth suggested.

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55%的立面是实体(非玻璃材质),铝镜片围绕窗户,透射46%的可见光 。

55 per cent of the facade is solid, with the aluminium lenses surrounding windows with 46 per cent visual light transmission.

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每个表面突出的模块都包含可以打开提供自然通风的窗口。

Make工作室由沙特沃斯在2004年创建,该工作室最近完成的一个项目展示了更具环保意识的立面设计方法。万达瑞华酒店位于中国武汉,表面包括902块六角形铝制模块,向前倾斜并且部分成角度,来保护房间免受太阳光辐射。大约55%的立面是实体,同时反光铝面板围绕着低可视光透射的玻璃,也围绕着能打开提供自然通风的窗格。表面的创新布置结果形成了纹理图案,从不同角度观察时产生变化,并且通过集成LED照明得到强烈的表现。

对于采取更多智能和可持续的立面解决方案的需求促使韩国韩华集团(Hanwha)雇请UNStudio工作室给位于首尔的总部进行可持续发展的改造,来反映该公司作为世界领先的环保能源供应商的地位。改造着重于给立面增加不同形状和尺寸的隔热窗户模块,来改善建筑的生态性能和室内环境。这些铝框元件的形状是由他们相对太阳轨迹和周围建筑的位置来决定的。日光和视野得到优化,同时通过使玻璃成角度来远离直射阳光从而实现遮阳。“通过全面整合设计策略,如今的立面能够提供对应的高性能的包覆,不仅在关联上而且在概念上对当地的环境作出反应,同时决定室内的条件。”UNStudio工作室的 本•范•伯克尔(Ben van Berkel)解释说。

Each of the modules that project from the surface contains windows that can open to provide natural ventilation.
One of the projects that Make, the studio that Shuttleworth founded in 2004, recently completed demonstrates a more environmentally aware approach to facade design. The surface of the Wanda Reign Hotel in Wuhan, China, comprises 902 hexagonal aluminium modules that lean forward and are angled in section to protect the rooms from solar gain. Approximately 55 per cent of the facade is solid, while the reflective aluminium panels surround glazing with low visual-light transmission and panes that can open to provide natural ventilation. The innovative arrangement of surfaces results in a textured pattern that changes when viewed from different angles and is emphasised by integrated LED lighting.
The need to embrace more intelligent and sustainable facade solutions prompted South Korean firm Hanwha to engage UNStudio to give its headquarters in Seoul a sustainable makeover that reflects its position as one of the world’s leading environmental energy suppliers. The renovation focuses on improving the building’s ecological performance and interior environment by adding insulated window modules of different shapes and sizes to the facade. The form of these aluminium-framed elements is determined by their position relative to the sun’s trajectory and the surrounding buildings. Daylight and views are optimised, while solar shading is achieved by angling glazing away from direct sunlight. “Through fully integrated design strategies, today’s facades can provide responsive and performative envelopes that both contextually and conceptually react to their local surroundings, whilst simultaneously determining interior conditions,” explains Ben van Berkel of UNStudio.

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深度不同的三维窗口模块排列在立面上,使UNStudio设计的韩华集团总部室内免受阳光直射。

Three-dimensional window modules with varying depths are arranged on the facade of UNStudio’s Hanwha headquarters to shield the interior from direct sunlight.

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光伏面板安装在向阳朝南和朝东的立面的窗框上。

Photovoltaic panels are fitted to the tops of window frames on the sun-facing south and east facades.

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LED灯集成在立面,显示移动的图案,在建筑的内部的其他功能之间进行交流 。

就万达瑞华酒店来说,三维立面的不规则图案增加了视觉上的趣味,将这栋大楼和很多当代商业区典型的同类玻璃盒子区分开来。为了强调客户世界第三大光伏生产商的地位,太阳能电池集成到表面上的不透明面板来接受大部分阳光。立面也结合了LED灯,显示动态图案,反映建筑的内部功能和相邻韩光大道上的数字媒体展示。

设计一个包含自然遮阳的三维立面是最简单、最可持续的给建筑降温的方式。欧洲之星书籍酒店位于慕尼黑,它有趣和实用的立面特色在于玻璃纤维增强混凝土弯曲面板,似乎从大楼墙面剥离,为一排排窗户提供遮阳。酒店有文学主题,不同楼层涉及不同类型,不同房间专门对应著名人物,所以巴塞罗那Capella Garcia Arquitectura 事务所以翻转页面的形式设计这个面板。玻璃纤维混凝土元素由奥地利Rieder公司用天然材料制造,来替代昂贵的机械百叶窗。面板几乎能塑造成任何形式,让建筑师无限地选择装饰和高性能外墙。

LED lighting incorporated into the facades will display a shifting pattern, communicating among other things the building’s interior programme.
As with Make’s Wanda Reign Hotel, the irregular pattern of the three-dimensional facade adds visual interest that distinguishes the building from the homogenous glass boxes typical of many contemporary business districts. To emphasise the client’s status as the world’s third largest photovoltaic producer, solar cells will be integrated into opaque panels on the surfaces that receive most sunlight. The facade will also incorporate LED lighting that will display a shifting pattern reflecting the building’s interior programme and the digital media displays on the adjacent Hanbit Avenue.
Designing a three-dimensional facade that incorporates natural shading is one of the simplest and most sustainable ways to cool a building. The playful and practical facade of the Eurostars Book Hotel in Munich features curving panels of glass fibre reinforced concrete that seem to peel away from the building’s walls to provide shading for rows of windows. The hotel has a literary theme, with floors that reference different genres and rooms dedicated to famous characters, so Barcelona office Capella Garcia Arquitectura designed the panels in the shape of turning pages. Manufactured by Austrian firm Rieder, the fibreC elements are made from natural materials and offer an alternative to costly mechanical shutters. The panels can be moulded into virtually any form, giving architects unlimited options for decorative and high-performance facades.

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增强混凝土曲面面板像书籍的页面,遮蔽Capella Garcia Arquitectura事务所设计的欧洲之星书籍酒店的窗户。

对于使用被动技术的建筑,有很多方法能控制它内部的热量、光和气流,来适应建筑的地理位置、环境和用途。在夏天太阳高角度照射导致过热的地区,增加结合到百叶窗或者隔板的遮阳板表面,能够帮助保护立面。一座新图书馆位于法属圭亚那卡宴的圭亚那大学校园,,由巴黎的rh+ architecture建筑设计事务所设计,它方方面面都用简单木条制成的遮阳表层封围起来。图书馆本身就放置在一个斜顶的混凝土盒式建筑里,木质结构整齐地开缝。rh+ architecture事务所的主要创新是在混凝土立面和板条围屏之间的间隔里创建公共空间。外围通道为出入图书馆的学生用作遮蔽的聚会地点,同时能让阳光穿透表面进入大楼,并且提供了向外的视野看到校园的其余部分。

板条围屏不仅保持图书馆凉爽和躲避最刺眼的太阳光线,而且确保光线照到大楼。小窗户分布在立面,把光线带进室内,同时减少主阅览室和中间楼层里可能的漫反射。这个项目展示了简单的被动式解决方案能怎样用于大型项目来创造舒适的内外部环境。

Curving reinforced concrete panels that resemble the pages of a book shield the windows of Capella Garcia Arquitectura’s Eurostars Book Hotel.
There are numerous ways of controlling heat, light and airflow inside a building using passive techniques, which can be adapted to suit its geographical location, context and use. In regions where high-angle summer sun can cause overheating, the addition of a brise soleil surface incorporating louvres or screens can help to protect the facade. The new library at the Guyanese University Campus in Cayenne, French Guiana, by Paris office rh+ architecture is enclosed on all sides by a sun-shading skin made from simple wooden slats. The library itself is housed in a concrete box with a sloping roofline, which is slotted neatly inside the wooden structure. rh+ architecture’s main innovation is the creation of a public space in the gap between the concrete facade and the slatted screen. This peripheral passageway acts as a sheltered meeting place for students on their way in or out of the library, while its permeable surface allows filtered sunlight to reach the building and provides views out that connect it with the rest of the campus.
As well as keeping the library cool and sheltered from the sun’s harshest rays, the slatted screen ensures that an even light reaches the building. Small windows are scattered across the facade to bring light inside while reducing the possibility of distracting reflections in the main reading room and mezzanine. The project demonstrates how simple, passive solutions can be applied to large-scale projects to create comfortable external and internal environments.

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圭亚那大学校园图书馆由rh+ architecture事务所设计,包围着木条表面,保护大楼免受最刺眼的太阳光线。

A slatted wooden surface enveloping the library at the Guyanese University Campus by rh+ architecture protects the building from the sun’s harshest rays.

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图书馆立面和围屏之间的空间用作遮蔽的走道。

The space between the library’s facade and the screen is used as a shaded walkway.

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照到大楼的光线透过百叶窗表面,通过小窗户进入室内。

基于和rh+ architecture所设计图书馆相似的原理,但使用不同的形式和材料,越南建筑师武重义(Vo Trong Nghia)设计了胡志明市附近的一所学校,通过给没有空调的教室通风,来应对项目有限的预算。狭窄的百叶窗覆盖弯曲的立面通道,微风吹向教室,穿过位于大楼边沿的走廊。混凝土预制组件垂直排列遍布整个立面,用作隔墙防止阳光直射到室内。

遮阳板表面和学校立面之间的空间变成室外走道,连接室内空间和两个弯曲轮廓形成的庭院。遮蔽楼梯的墙壁更不透明,以穿孔几何图案为特色,让斑驳的光线和空气进入室内。武重义(Vo Trong Nghia)设计的项目旨在证明,自然通风和包括使用植物和水池的其它传统的被动降温技术能解决炎热和污染地区建筑面临的挑战,结果创造了更健康更舒适的空间。

Light reaching the building is filtered through the louvred surface and reaches the interior through small windows.
Based on a similar principle to rh+ architecture’s library, but employing different forms and materials, Vietnamese architect Vo Trong Nghia’s design for a school near Ho Chi Minh City responds to the project’s limited budget by ventilating the classrooms without air conditioning. Narrow louvres covering the curving facades channel breezes towards the classrooms and through corridors located along the building’s edges. The precast concrete components are arranged vertically across the entire facade and act as a screen to prevent direct sunlight reaching the interior.
Spaces between the brise-soleil surface and the school’s facade become outdoor walkways that connect the interior spaces with two courtyards formed by the sinuous plan. More opaque walls sheltering the staircases feature perforated geometric patterns that allow dappled light and air to enter the interior. Vo Trong Nghia’s projects aim to prove that natural ventilation and other traditional passive cooling techniques including the use of plants and pools offer solutions to the challenges of building in hot and polluted regions, which result in healthier and more comfortable spaces.

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垂直百叶窗通道的微风吹向武重义(Vo Trong Nghia)设计的平阳学校(Binh Duong school)的教室。

Vertical louvres channel breezes towards the classrooms of Vo Trong Nghia’s Binh Duong school.

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隔墙和大楼弯曲立面平行,容纳了遮蔽的通道空间。

The screen runs parallel to the building’s curving facade and contains shaded circulation spaces.

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墙壁以遮蔽楼梯的穿孔图案为特色。

在国内范围,被动遮阳和通风技术的实现可以帮助房主避免在空调上浪费能源。美丽华住宅(Miramar House )位于葡萄牙,由e|348建筑事务所设计,使用了简单的铰链木制百叶窗系统,包围从房子上层伸出的阳台,遮盖里面的卧室和一楼的客厅。

垂直板条百叶窗沿着建筑朝南和朝西向阳的立面安置,在炎热的夏季提供遮阳,但是可以完全打开,在冬季让阳光进入室内。建筑师想引入元素来打破建筑单调的白色立面,用作灵活的户外空间,可以适应所需的大量阴凉和私密。

Walls featuring perforated patterns shelter the stairways.
On a domestic scale, the implementation of passive shading and ventilation techniques can help homeowners avoid wasting energy on air conditioning. The Miramar House in Portugal by e|348 arquitectura employs a simple system of hinged wooden shutters that enclose a balcony projecting from the property’s upper floor to shield the bedrooms inside and the ground floor living spaces.
Positioned along the building’s sun-facing south and west facades, the vertical slatted shutters provide shade during the hot summer months but can be fully opened to allow sunlight to reach the interior during winter. The architects wanted to introduce an element which interrupts the building’s homogenous white facade and functions as a flexible outdoor space that can adapt to the amount of shade and privacy required.

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Miramar住宅由e|348事务所设计,阳台从立面伸出,用百叶窗遮阳 。

A balcony shaded by louvred shutters projects from the facade of the Miramar house by e|348 arquitectura.

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木制百叶窗能够打开,让阳台从室内空间转变成室外空间。

The wooden shutters can be swung open to allow transform the balconies from indoor to outdoor spaces.

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在炎热的夏季,围屏提供了遮阳,而在一年中其它时间能够打开,让低射的阳光温暖房屋。

铰链百叶窗是简单又传统的遮阳方法,应用于世界各地,e|348建筑事务所的设计扩大了它们的尺寸,并且结合了当代建筑类型学,肯定了这个低技术含量的可持续解决方案。“我们相信设计可以给气候问题提供大部分的解决方法,”建筑师说,“为了实现目的,我们能检查所有传统的设计和建筑技术,没有电也能提供相当舒适的建筑。”

我们对玻璃的喜爱和所有它能提供的东西可能会继续,但许多建筑师认识到窗户的角色需要重新考虑,其它材料也许能提供更有效的包层解决方案。肯•沙特沃斯(Ken Shuttleworth)在电台采访中说,拥有一扇窗户“应当被视为特权”,这听起来有点过了,但它代表了一种正在转变的对如何完成立面的态度,代表了他和其他人当前正在实践和呼吁的东西。

During hot summer months, the screens provide shade, while at other times of year they can be opened to let low sunlight warm the house.
Hinged shutters are a straightforward and traditional shading method used throughout the world, and e|348 arquitectura’s design celebrates this low-tech and sustainable solution by exaggerating their size and combining them with a contemporary building typology. “We believe that design can provide most of the solutions to climate problems,” say the architects. “[To achieve] that we can check all the traditional design and building techniques, that without electricity could provide a considerable comfort to buildings.”
Our love affair with glass and all it has to offer is likely to continue, but many architects recognise that the role of windows needs to be reconsidered and that other materials perhaps offer more efficient cladding solutions. In his radio interview, Ken Shuttleworth said having a window “should be seen as a privilege”, which may sound like a step too far but it represents a shifting attitude towards how facades should perform; something he and others are currently practicing as well as preaching.

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出处:本文译自www.architonic.com/,转载请注明出处。


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