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建筑史上十大被忽视的杰出女性第1张图片

回首建筑史,很多人都会认为女性建筑师和氨纶以及动力转向装置一样是20世纪50年代才出现在历史的舞台上,这样的观点事实上和历史背离甚远。很多我们耳熟能详的建筑大师,例如柯布西耶、密斯·凡德罗、赖特、康恩等,都曾从同时代的女性身上获得灵感,但是由于当时的社会体制的限制,这些杰出的女性为建筑做出的贡献却总是被遗忘在历史的角落。为了纪念2013年的国际妇女节,我们就来盘点一下建筑史上十大杰出却被忽视的女性。


Looking back on architectural history, you could be forgiven for thinking that women were an invention of the 1950’s, alongside spandex and power steering – but this couldn’t be further from the truth. Big names like Le Corbusier, Mies, Wright and Kahn often had equally inspired female peers, but the rigid structure of society meant that their contributions tended to be overlooked.  In honor of International Woman’s Day 2013, we take a look at the 10 greatest overlooked women in architectural history.

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via ACSA


索菲亚·海登·班纳特

      索菲亚·海登·班纳特出生于智利圣地亚哥,父亲是智利人,而母亲是美国人。她于1890年毕业于美国麻省理工学院,是首位获得建筑学学位的女性。然而当时,这个学位却并不能让她顺利地找到工作,在经过很长一段时间徒劳的寻找之后,索菲亚终于放弃转而在波士顿一所高中教授工程制图。
      1891年,一次偶然的机会让海登重新走上建筑设计的道路。当时美国为了展示哥伦布发现新大陆以来的工业成就预计将于1893年在芝加哥举行盛大的哥伦比亚展览会。组委会决定将展馆瑞莱恩斯大厦的其中一部分Woman’s Building交予女性建筑师参与设计,而海登正是位于受邀之列。在其麻省理工的研究论文基础之上,海登提议建造一个三层楼高,具有意大利文艺复兴时期风格的建筑。最终,她的设计在13位参赛者中脱颖而出摘得桂冠,而她当时只有21岁。值得一提的是,她为此收到了1000美元的设计费,是当时很多男建筑师的10倍。
      然而,在Woman’s Building的建造过程中,海登不断地遭受当时建造委员会的强制管理,并且不断地被迫妥协。这个年轻的女性终于在承受了来自各方过大的压力之后崩溃了,被送往疗养院强制修养。这个事件证明了在当时的建筑界女性是没有地位可言的。展览会结束之后,海登再也没有从事建筑师的工作。


Sophia Hayden Bennett
Born in 1869 in Santiago, Chile to a Chilean father and American mother, Sophia Hayden Benett was the first woman to receive an architecture degree from MIT when she graduated in 1890. The degree, however, did not guarantee work; after searching fruitlessly, Hayden Benett resigned to accepting a job teaching technical drawing in a Boston high School.
In 1891, Hayden came across an announcement calling on women architects to submit designs for the Woman’s Building, which would form part of Daniel Burnham’s gargantuan World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Hayden’s proposal, based upon her college thesis, was for a three story building in the Italian Renaissance style. Hayden’s design won first prize out of the field of thirteen entries. Only twenty-one at the time, Hayden received one-thousand dollars for her design, which was a tenth of what many men received for theirs.
However, during the construction of the building, Hayden suffer constant micro-management and compromises demanded by the construction committee. So much stress was put on the young woman that she suffered from a break-down and was placed in a sanitarium for a period of enforced rest; leading many at the time to highlight it as proof that women had no place in the world of architecture. After the exhibition Hayden never worked as an architect again.

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via wikipedia


玛丽安·马赫尼·格里芬

      玛丽安·马赫尼·格里芬不仅是世界上最早的女性注册建筑师之一,而且还是建筑大师弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特的首位雇员。
      马赫尼出生于1871年,在美国麻省理工学习建筑,1894年从麻省毕业后为她的堂兄工作。马赫尼的堂兄也是一名建筑师,他慷慨地和其他建筑师共享了一个办公楼,其中就包括在1895年雇佣了马赫尼的赖特。作为赖特的首位雇员,马赫尼对赖特草原式住宅风格的发展产生过相当大的影响,同时她的水彩渲染也很快成了赖特设计作品的标志,因此赖特本人对她相当得信任。
      1909年赖特前往欧洲发展,他们之间的合作也随之终止。赖特在离开之前希望将工作室交给马赫尼,但是她拒绝了。随后她又受雇于赖特的继任者,因为她对建筑设计已经能够独当一面了。
      1911年,马赫尼和同样为赖特工作过的建筑师沃尔特·贝里·格里芬结婚。婚后两人共同建立了一个工作室,不久他们就接到了设计澳大利亚的新首都堪培拉的任务。随后这对夫妻就搬往澳大利亚实地监督项目施工,之后又移居印度继续他们的建筑设计工作,直到1937年丈夫格里芬去世。丈夫去世之后,马赫尼再也没有接手过任何建筑工作,直到1961年与世长辞。


Marion Mahony Griffin
Marion Mahony Griffin, was not only one of the first licensed female architects in the world, but was the first employee of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Born in 1871, she studied architecture at MIT. After graduating in 1894 she began working for her cousin, who happened to share a building with several other architects, including Wright, who hired Mahoney in 1895. Being his first employee, Mahoney exerted a considerable influence on the development of the Prairie style, while her watercolor renderings soon became synonymous with Wright’s work. As was typical for Wright at the time, he credited her for neither.
Their collaboration ended in 1909 when Wright left for Europe, offering to leave the studio’s commissions to Mahony, who declined. However, she was subsequently hired by Wright’s successor, under the condition that she was in full control of design.
In 1911 she married Walter Burley Griffin, who also worked with Wright. The two set up a practice together and before long they won the commission to design the new Australian capital Canberra. The couple moved to Australia to oversee the project, and later moved to India, where they continued to work until Griffin died in 1937. After his death, Mahoney refrained from working in architecture until her death in 1961.

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艾琳·格雷

      艾琳·格雷于1878年出生在爱尔兰恩尼斯科西的一个富裕的贵族家庭。她曾在伦敦学习艺术,1902年前往巴黎深造。
      因为曾在伦敦苏活区学习过漆器工艺,为了完善这项技艺,格雷和一个日本的手工艺人Seizo Sugawara一起成立了一个漆器工作室,并且在国内名声鹊起,很快她就接到一些富有的顾客的室内设计委托。特别在建筑方面,格雷在设计上通常使用漆器隔断来分隔空间,模糊了家具和建筑之间的分界。
      通过运用她在室内设计方面的经验,格雷和她的爱人让·伯多维奇一起设计了位于法国南部的一个度假别墅E-1027。这栋住宅是格雷尝试更加激进的家具设计的一个试验台,出现了很多她标志性的作品。自从她和让·伯多维奇分手之后,格雷觉得住宅设计太过遥远,不是每一个人都可以成为勒·柯布西耶。而让·伯多维奇却变得对E-1027异常痴迷,他在附近为自己建了一个小屋。有一天,他偷偷潜进E-1027用自己的壁画对它大肆破坏。最终,他在E-1027附近去世。
      格雷把她的余生都贡献给了建筑设计;1937年她设计的一个度假中心在巴黎博览会的勒·柯布西耶新精神馆落成。可惜的是,她总是将自己与世隔离,除此之外只有两个项目建成问世,还都是为自己所建。20世纪60年代末,她的作品几乎被世人遗忘,1976年,格雷与世长辞。
      目前格雷的建筑作品在巴黎蓬皮杜中心展览,同时也会永久地在爱尔兰国家博物馆展出,人们希望以这样的方式为格雷正名。她是一位伟大的建筑家,和勒·柯布西耶以及密斯·凡·德罗一样是现代主义的先驱。


Eileen Gray
Eileen Gray was born into a wealthy aristocratic family in Enniscorthy, Ireland in 1878. After studying art in London, Gray moved to Paris in 1902 to further her studies.
Having studied lacquer work in Soho, Gray set up a studio with Japanese craftsman Seizo Sugawara to perfect her skills. She gained notoriety through her domestic lacquer wares and she was soon being offered interior design commissions by wealthy patrons. Notably architectural, her designs used lacquer screens to divide space, blurring the lines between furniture and architecture.
Using her experience in interior design, she designed E-1027 – a holiday home in the south of France  - with her lover Jean Badovici. The house became a test-bed for Gray to trial with radical furniture designs, leading to some of her most iconic work. After splitting with Badovici, Gray felt distant from the house. One person who didn’t, however, was Le Corbusier. He became obsessed with E-1027, building a small home for himself nearby and one day sneaking in to vandalize it with his own murals. It was near this house where he died.
Gray devoted the rest of her life to architectural designs; in 1937 her designs for a holiday centre were featured in Le Corbusier’s Esprit Nouveau pavilion at the Paris Exposition. However, she distanced herself from the community and only two other projects, both designed for her own use, were ever built. By the end of the 1960’s her work was all but forgotten. She died in 1976.
There is currently an exhibition running in Centre Pompidou in Paris as well as a permanent exhibition in the National Museum of Ireland, both aim to reinstate Gray’s reputation as one of the central pioneers of modernism alongside Le Corbusier and Mies Van der Rohe.

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via rauminhalt


莉莉·瑞克

      密斯·凡·德罗很多著名的设计作品,特别是在家具设计领域,莉莉·瑞克功不可没。据说,密斯很少问任何人的想法,但是却乐意听取她的建议。
      瑞克与1885年6月出生在德国柏林,高中毕业后前往奥地利维也纳学习工业装饰——在当时这是一项十分适合女性的设计工作。1911年回到柏林以后,瑞克从事时装设计和家具设计工作并且加入了德意志工艺联盟——一个德国工业同盟会——1920年成为同盟会的首位女领导者。
      瑞克以设计师的身份前往法兰克福市并且在那里遇到了密斯·凡·德罗,两人很快就熟悉起来,她最后决定在密斯的工作室工作。1928年,两人被任命为巴塞罗那世界博览会德国馆的艺术总监,后来德国馆成为了密斯的标志性设计作品,很长一段时间以来都被定义为现代主义建筑的典范。不久之后,密斯任命瑞克为他所创立的包豪斯学校建筑和装饰方面的主管。1933年在国家社会党的压力之下包豪斯被迫关闭,瑞克也因此结束了她在学校的工作。
      二战期间瑞克接手了一些小型的工作,1937年,密斯离开德国前往美国,瑞克和密斯长达12年的合作关系就此结束。密斯离开后,瑞克负责他在柏林遗留的一些事务,她决定将密斯的4000多张建筑图纸搬到柏林市外的一个仓库保存下来,避免在轰炸中被损毁。1939年,瑞克的工作室被炸毁,她自己也被作为强制劳动力被迫征召进一个土木工程组织,一直到1945年才得以离开。
      战争结束后,瑞克在柏林艺术大学教授室内设计和建筑理论的课程,同时她还参与了复兴制造联盟的运动。1947年,瑞克去世,遗憾的是制造联盟在她去世3年后才获得了它在德国的合法地位。


Lilly Reich
Many of Mies Van der Rohe’s most famous works, particularly in the area of furniture design, would not have been possible without this woman. It is said that Mies rarely asked for anybody’s opinion, but was always eager to hear hers.
Born June 1885 in Berlin, Reich moved to Vienna after high school to train as an industrial embroider – a design career considered suitable for women at the time. Upon returning to Berlin in 1911 she worked as a fashion and furniture designer and joined the Deutscher Werkbund – a German work federation – becoming its first female director in 1920.
Her work as a designer took her to Frankfurt where she met Mies Van der Rohe. The two of them became very close and she began working in his office. In 1928, the duo were appointed artistic directors of the German pavilion at the Barcelona World exposition, leading to Mies’ iconic design, long considered one of the defining works of modernism. Shortly after, Mies appointed Reich as the director of building/finishing at the Bauhaus school, which he was at the helm of. Her tenure was cut short when the school closed 1933 under to pressure from the National Socialist party.
During the war Reich took on a few small jobs, but her 12-year partnership with Mies ended when he left for America in 1937. Remaining responsible for his affairs in Berlin, she managed to save over 4000 of his drawings from being destroyed by bombing when she smuggled them to a barn outside of Berlin. In 1939, however, her studio was bombed and she was drafted into a forced-labor, civil engineering organization, where she remained until 1945.
After the war she took a job lecturing interior design and building theory at Berlin University of the Arts. She also partook in meetings to revive the Werkbund, but died in 1947 three years before it gained legal status.

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Via The Lost Innocence


夏洛克·贝里安

      夏洛克·贝里安曾在法国巴黎学习家具设计,1927年进入勒·柯布西耶工作室工作。刚开始她并未受到重视,柯布西耶驳回了她的设计并告诫说:“我们这里不需要绣花枕头。”然而,当她的设计作品在秋季沙龙展览中展出时,使柯布西耶印象深刻,正式交给她家具设计的工作。
      在加入柯布西耶工作室一年的时间里,贝里安协助设计和制作了三把勒·柯布西耶的标志性椅子B301、B306和LC2“豪华舒适款”。
      20世纪30年代后期,贝里安将自己的注意力更多地放在了未来,她开始加入一些左派组织,并且在1937年创建了现代艺术联盟。意识到需要在勒·柯布西耶的理性设计上加入更多的人文关怀元素,贝里安的设计变得更加大众化,她使用木材和藤条代替昂贵的铬合金,致力于设计出对大多数人来说功能合理、造型新颖并且价格实惠的家具。
      1940年贝里安受邀前往日本担任商务贸易和工业生产部门的顾问。两年后由于持续的战争,她不得不离开日本返回欧洲。但是在返回欧洲的途中,她遭受了扣押并且被流放到越南。在那里她学习了东方的设计元素,包括编织和木艺,这些对她日后的设计生涯产生了巨大的影响。


Charlotte Perriand
Studying furniture design in Paris, Charlotte Perriand applied for a job at Le Corbusier’s studio in 1927. Unimpressed, he dismissed her work with the comment: “We don’t embroider cushions here.” However, later when her work was put in display at the Salon d’Automne, he was impressed by it, and offered her a job in furniture design.
A year after joining his studio, Perriand had already produced three of Le Corbusier’s most iconic chair designs, the B301, B306 and the LC2 Grand Comfort.
As Perriand’s views moved futher to the left in the 1930’s she became involved in many leftist organizations, founding the Union des Artists Moderns in 1937. Noticed for adding humaneness to Le Corbusier’s rational work, her designs started become more affordable, using wood and cane over expensive chrome; her aim was to develop functional and appealing furniture for the masses.
In 1940 Perriand was invited to travel to Japan to become an advisor for the Ministry for trade and Industry. Two years later the ongoing war forced her to leave the country. Whilst returning to Europe she was detained by a naval blockade and forced into exile in Vietnam. There she studied eastern design including weaving and woodwork, which had a huge impact on her later work.

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Courtesy of RIBA British Architectural Library Photographs Collection (1987)


简·德鲁

      简·德鲁是英国现代主义的早期拥护者,并且是她将勒·柯布西耶的作品传播到了印度。
      作为一个建筑师和城市规划师,德鲁毕业于英国伦敦AA大学,并且是MARS的主要发起人——一场基于勒·柯布西耶的国际现代建筑协会的英国现代主义运动——这场运动是基于“空间应该充分地被人类活动利用,不应该局限于程式化的设计,忽略人的能动性”的宗旨。
      在战争期间,德鲁在伦敦接手了很多大型项目,这是首次由女性建筑师全权负责建筑项目。最后,德鲁和她的丈夫马克斯韦尔·弗莱建立了合作关系。在德鲁的思想的影响下,这对夫妻在英国、西非、伊朗建造了大批的经济适用房。
      由于对德鲁在西非的设计作品印象深刻,印度的总理大臣邀请她对印度旁遮普的新首府昌迪加尔进行设计。德鲁不确定自己是否能够胜任总理大臣的委托——那个时候她正在为英国节进行建筑设计——但是她确信自己要沿着勒·柯布西耶的脚步走下去,她将印度和英国节的这两个项目结合在了一起。德鲁在印度的城市尝试了新的社会住宅意识,最终影响到了整个印度的住宅设计。


Jane Drew
Jane Drew was an early proponent of Modernism in England and was responsible for bringing Le Corbusier’s work to India.
An architect and town planner, Drew was educated in the AA in London and became one of the principal founders of MARS – an English modernist movement based on Le Corbusiers CIAM – based on the mission statement the “use of space for human activity rather than the manipulation of stylized convention.”
Starting a – at first entirely female – practice in London during the war, Drew took on a number of large projects throughout the city, eventually going into partnership with her husband Maxwell Fry. In keeping with Drew’s ethos, a huge proportion of their projects consisted of affordable housing in England, West Africa and Iran.
Impressed by her work in West Africa, Drew was asked by the Indian Prime minister to design Chandigarh,  the new capital of Punjab. Drew was unsure of her ability to undertake the project – at the time she was designing housing for the festival of Britain, – so she convinced fellow modernist Le Corbusier to contribute, creating a close collaboration between the two. Drew used the city to experiment with new socially conscious housing strategies, eventually effecting the design of housing throughout India.

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via Ser Sustentavel Com Estilo


丽娜·柏·巴蒂

      意大利建筑师柏·巴蒂的作品相对于同辈的未来主义的作品,例如奥斯卡·迈尼耶的设计,总是略显不起眼,在他们大放异彩的时候,她却专注于巴西的大部分战后重建工作。但是,柏·巴蒂的设计作品总是以人为本,为每一个使用者创造最美好的空间。
      丽娜·柏·巴蒂出生于1914年,1939年毕业于罗马大学建筑系,随后前往米兰,1942年在米兰建立了自己的工作室。可惜没过多久她的工作室在一次空袭中被炸毁,再加上由于战争的影响,人人自危,几乎没有工作找上门,以至于她不得不尝试着做其他领域的工作。1943年,她受邀成为了《Domus》杂志的主编。
      1946年,柏·巴蒂移民到巴西,5年后加入了巴西国籍。1947年,柏·巴蒂受邀设计了位于圣保罗州的阿西斯·弗朗索瓦艺术博物馆(MASP),后来成为了拉丁美洲最重要的博物馆之一。在设计中,她运用了很多激进的元素,其中包括了当时被认为是巴西第一把现代主义的椅子。
      1948年,柏·巴蒂和另一个意大利建筑师合伙建立了d’Arte Palma工作室,着眼于运用胶合板和巴西本土材料进行家具设计。1951年,她为自己设计了一栋私人住宅——玻璃屋,这栋建筑成为了巴西现代主义的中心。1958年,她受邀前往萨尔瓦多市参与设计巴伊亚现代艺术博物馆,1964年由于一场军事政变,她又回到了圣保罗。她的作品总是相当精简,她自己称之为“可怜的建筑”。


Lina Bo Bardi
Completing the vast majority of her work in post-war Brazil, Italian architect Lina Bo Bardi was overshadowed by the futuristic work of peers such as Oscar Niemeyer. However she has become known as an architect who always put people first in her work, creating beautiful architecture that is loved by its inhabitants.
Born in 1914, Lina Bo Bardi graduated from the Rome College of Architecture in 1939 and moved to Milan, where she set up her own practice in 1942. Shortly afterwards her office was damaged by an aerial bombing. This, combined with the lack of commissions due to the war, caused her explore other areas of her work, and in 1943 she was invited to become director of the magazine Domus.
Bo Bardi moved to Brazil in 1946, where she became a naturalized citizen five years later. In 1947 Bo Bardi was invited to set up the Assis Chateubriand Museum of Art of São Paulo (MASP), which has become one of the most important museums in Latin America. Her design had plenty of radical elements, including what are considered the first modern chairs in Brazil.
In 1948 she set up Studio d’Arte Palma with another Italian architect, with an eye to designing furniture from Plywood and ‘typical’ Brazilian materials. In 1951 she completed the Glass House, her private residence, which became a centerpiece of modernism in Brazil. In 1958 Bo Bardi received an invitation to move to Salvador to run the Museum of Modern Art of Bahial upon returning to São Paulo after a military coup in 1964, her work underwent vast simplification, becoming what she described herself as ‘poor architecture’.

建筑史上十大被忽视的杰出女性第9张图片
via philly.com


安妮·廷

      安妮·廷是20世纪著名的建筑理论家,她是路易斯·康恩的设计灵感源泉,并和他有一个女儿。
      安妮·廷在1920年出生于中国,是主教传教士的孩子。1942年,她成为了美国哈佛大学设计学院最早的一批女学员之一,她的导师正是著名建筑师格罗皮乌斯。
      毕业之后,她辗转于纽约的几个设计工作室,之后前往费城加入了康恩的公司——Stonorov & Kahn。1947年,公司解散,但是廷仍旧为康恩工作。她从来没有自己着手设计过一栋建筑,但是由于同样对几何结构相当痴迷,她总是能就康恩的设计提出自己的建议。很多人认为她是康恩的缪斯女神,巴克敏斯特·富勒则称她为“康恩的几何策略师”。在很多康恩的设计作品中都能看到廷的影响,例如特伦顿公共澡堂和耶鲁大学美术馆,甚至康恩的“城市大厦”大部分工作都归功于廷。


Anne Tyng
A prominent architectural theorist of the twentieth century, Anne Tyng became central to the designs of Louis Kahn, with whom she had a daughter.
Anne Tyng was born in China in 1920 to Episcopal missionaries. In 1942 she became one of the first women to be admitted to the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where she studied under Walter Gropius.
After graduating she went on to work for several New York offices before moving to Philadelphia to join Kahn’s firm, Stonorov & Kahn. When the firm split in 1947 Tyne continued working for Kahn.  She never designed a building of her own, but, due to a shared fascination with geometry, she became critical to Kahn’s work.  Some described her as his muse; Buckminster Fuller preferred to call her “Kahn’s geometrical strategist.” Many of Kahn’s designs show her influence, such as Trenton Bath House and the Yale Art Gallery, while Kahn’s “City Tower’ was mostly the work of Tyng.

建筑史上十大被忽视的杰出女性第10张图片
via blackpast.org


诺尔玛·梅瑞科·斯科拉里克

      诺尔玛·梅瑞科·斯科拉里克是首位获得建筑师资格证的非裔美国女建筑师,并且是加利福尼亚首位资格证获得者,她同时也是美国建筑师学会首位非裔美国女建筑师成员。
      斯科拉里克于1926年出生在美国哈莱姆区,尽管她持有哥伦比亚大学的学位证书,但是仍然难以在纽约找到一份工作。就像她说的:“他们不愿意雇用一位女性,尤其还是非裔,我不认为是工作本身不适合我。”最终,她在Skidmore Owings & Merill工作室获得了一份工作。
      1960年,她前往加利福尼亚,为Gruen Associates工作,在那里她又再一次感受到了性别和种族歧视带来的压力。尽管如此,她还是坚强地从打击中恢复过来,并且通过努力快速地升职,在1966年被任命为公司主管。她的职业生涯让她成为了一位声誉斐然的建筑师,她总是定期完成一些巨大的项目,例如 洛杉矶国际机场1号航站楼、东京的美国大使馆等,并且总是能够在工期和预算控制之内。
      1980年,斯科拉里克离开了Gruen Associates,很快和别人合伙成立了Sklarek, Siegel and Diamond,这家公司之后成为了美国最大的只有女性职员的公司。


Norma Merrick Sklarek
A woman of firsts, Norma Merrick Sklarek was the  first African-American woman to hold an architecture license, first to earn a license in California and first African-American woman to be elected a fellow of the American Institute of Architects.
Born in Harlem in 1926, Sklarek found it difficult to find work with firms in New York, despite having a degree from Columbia University. As she said, “They weren’t hiring women or African Americans, and I didn’t know which it was [working against me].” Eventually she secured a job in Skidmore Owings & Merill.
In 1960 she moved to California to work for Gruen Associates, where she recalled feeling under pressure because of her gender and ethnicity. Despite this she quickly rose through the ranks and was named director of the firm in 1966. Throughout her career Sklarek gained a reputation as an excellent project architect, regularly completing  huge projects, such as LAX Terminal 1 and the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, on time and under budget.
She left Gruen and Associates in 1980 and shortly after co-founded Sklarek, Siegel and Diamond, which became the biggest, female only firm in the country.

建筑史上十大被忽视的杰出女性第11张图片
© Frank Hanswijk


丹尼斯·斯科特·布朗

      丹尼斯·斯科特·布朗和她的伴侣罗伯特·文丘里对20世纪建筑设计的发展有着巨大的影响。她的评论被认为改变了很多建筑师和规划师看待本世纪中叶的现代主义和城市设计的方式。1991年,她的丈夫罗伯特·文丘里获得了普利兹克建筑奖,很多人对她没有得到提名感到十分惊讶。
      斯科特·布朗于1931年出生在当时的北罗德西亚,先后在南非和伦敦学习。1958年,她随她的第一任丈夫罗伯特·斯科特·布朗移居费城,一年以后,丈夫死于车祸。
      1960年,斯科特·布朗在宾夕法尼亚大学完成了她规划专业的研究生学业,并留校成为了一名教员,随后她又获得了建筑专业的硕士学位。也正是在这所大学,她邂逅了她的未来的丈夫和合伙人罗伯特·文丘里。
      作为一名学者,布朗总是到处旅行,洛杉矶和拉斯维加斯这样的新兴城市总是能够激起她浓厚的兴趣。1967年到1970年,她在耶鲁大学任教期间,设计了一门叫“向拉斯维加斯学习”的研究课程。斯科特·布朗和文丘里以及城市规划学家史蒂芬·伊泽诺一起通过这些课题研究,撰写了《向拉斯维加斯学习:被遗忘的建筑形式》一书,是20世纪设计领域开创性的著作


Denise Scott Brown
Denise Scott Brown, along with her partner Robert Venturi, has had a enormous influence on the development of architectural design during the twentieth century. Her critiques are credited with changing the way many architects and planners saw mid-century modernism and urban design. Many were surprised when her husband was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 1991, and she failed to receive a mention.
Born in 1931 in, then, Northern Rhodesia, Scott Brown studied first in South Africa and then London. In 1958 she moved to Philadelphia with her first husband Robert Scott Brown, who was died in a auto accident a year later.
In 1960, Scott Brown completed her masters in planning in University of Pennsylvania where she became a member of faculty, completing a masters in Architecture shortly afterwards. It was here that she met future husband and partner Robert Venturi.
Brown travelled extensively as a scholar, sparking her interest in the relatively young cities of Los Angeles and Las Vegas. While teaching at Yale University from 1967 to 1970 she designed studio classes called Learning from Las Vegas. Scott Brown, along with Venturi, and urbanist Steven Izenour, compiled the work from these classes in to the book Learning From Las Vegas: the Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form, which has become a seminal work of the 20th century design.

出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
编辑:范偲慧,许航

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