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高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第1张图片
2014最高楼第10名:圣地亚哥的科斯塔内拉塔,300米。© Pablo Blanco

过去的这一年对于摩天大楼来说是个破纪录的时期。根据高层建筑和城市住区理事会(CTBUH)的一个新的调查,2014年见证了97栋至少200米高的建筑建成完工。其中,有11幢建筑甚至超过了300米,使它们进入了“超高层建筑”的行列,刷新了年度高层及超高层建筑数量的记录,例如在2011年只有87幢200米以上的建筑完工。


This past year was a record-breaking season for skyscraper construction. According to a new survey by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), 2014 saw the completion of 97 buildings that were at least 200 meters tall. Of those, 11 were 300 meters or taller, earning them the classification of “supertall.” These are the highest figures on record, with 2011, for example, seeing only 87 200-meters-plus buildings completed.

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第2张图片
2014最高楼第1名:纽约市的世界贸易中心,524米。©John Cahill

除此之外,在2014年内完工建筑的总高度(23333米)也打破了2011年19852米的记录。随着世界主要国家,例如中国,日益城市化,以及世界经济开始从衰退中开始复苏,CTBUH预测这些数字只会增加。接下来就让我们详细了解一下CTBUH的报告,预测一下未来摩天大楼的发展趋势。


In addition, in 2014 the total height of completed buildings (23,333 meters) broke the 2011 record of 19,852 meters. With major countries like China becoming increasingly urbanized, and the world economy recovering from recession, the CTBUH expects that these numbers will only increase. See the details of CTBUH’s report, and learn what the numbers may predict about the future of skyscraper construction, after the break.

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第3张图片
1960-2016年间200米以上完工建筑数量。© CTBUH

报告显示,自2000年以来,200米以上建筑的数量增加了352%,其中中国所做的贡献尤为突出。在过去的七年里,中国建成的200米以上的建筑数量在世界范围内占主导地位,仅在2014年就有58栋在中国完工,占总量的60%。值得关注的是,14年建成的200米以上的97栋建筑中,亚洲占了74栋(占总量的76%)。菲律宾以远远落后于中国的完工5栋摩天大楼位居第二,阿拉伯联合酋长国和卡塔尔各自完成四栋摩天大楼并列第三。虽然美国以三栋位居第四(与日本,印度尼西亚,加拿大并列),但是却因纽约的世界贸易中心赢得了2014最高建筑的荣誉,此建筑高达541米,是迄今世界上第三高的建筑。


The report reveals that since 2000 there has been a 352% increase in the number of 200-meter-plus buildings, with China contributing significantly to that number. For the past seven years, China has dominated in the number of buildings at or above 200 meters being constructed, with 58 completed in China alone in 2014. This accounts for 60% of the 200-meter-plus buildings built in 2014, with Asia itself holding 74 (or 76%) of the 97 buildings completed during the year. The Philippines earned a distant second place with five skyscrapers completed, while the UAE and Qatar tied at third place with four completed buildings each. The US took home fourth place with three completions (tying withJapan, Indonesia, and Canada), but earned the distinction of building the tallest building of 2014—theOne World Trade Center in New York City, which is supertall at 541 meters, and is the third tallest building of all time.

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第4张图片
2014年最高的20栋建筑。 © CTBUH

在14年完成的97栋建筑中,52栋(54%)都使用了复合结构,相对于13年增长了20%。37栋(38%)使用了混凝土,相对于2013年下降了21%。令人惊讶的是,全钢架结构相比13年增加了2%,有5%的200米以上的建筑使用了全钢架结构。这些趋势很有可能和今年的办公楼建设流行有关。这97栋建筑中,有47栋仅作办公楼使用。另外有26栋被归为多功能建筑,当然也会包含办公功能。通常,办公楼需要没有柱网隔断的大跨度空间。过去,钢结构能够很好地满足这个要求。但是在现代的建筑中,混凝土的耐火性和强度使其成为了钢框架结构有力的补充材料,经常被用做构筑建筑的核心筒或者建筑外骨架部分。
      那么为什么在2014年钢结构建筑却增加了?这取决于项目的地理位置和设计者的想法。五栋钢结构建筑中有三栋在日本,一栋在台湾。两者所处的位置都是地震多发地带,因此要求结构能够在频繁的地壳运动中保证建筑的安全性,而钢结构恰好满足这一点。最后一栋是伦敦兰特荷大厦,由 Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners设计。在这个设计中,对预制构件的需要,使得钢结构成为了最好的选择。同时Rogers Stirk Harbour and Partners也是以钢结构设计著称。


Out of the 97 buildings completed this year, 52 (54%) used composite construction, a 20% increase from last year’s survey. Thirty-seven (38%) used concrete, which was a 21% decline from 2013. Exclusively steel construction saw a surprising 2% increase from last year, with 5% of 200-meter-plus buildings using only steel. These trends are likely tied to the prevalence of office buildings constructed this year. Of the 97 buildings recorded in the survey, 47 of them were strictly for offices. An additional 26 were classified as mixed-use, which would incorporate offices as well. Traditionally, these spaces require large floors without columns. In the past, steel could fulfill that requirement quite well. In modern construction, however, concrete’s fire resistance and rigidity have made it a valuable addition to steel frame buildings, often forming the building’s core or forming part of its exoskeleton.
Why, then, the increase in steel construction in 2014? The answer is dependent on location and designer. Three of the five steel buildings are in Japan, and one is in Taiwan. Both countries experience regular seismic activity, and the construction requirements to ensure a building’s safety during such activity are easier to fulfill using steel. The last project, the London Leadenhall Building, is the work of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners. The need for prefabricated elements in this design made steel the best structural choice. Rogers Stirk Harbour and Partners is also extremely well known for their use of steel exoskeletons.

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第5张图片
历年最高建筑。© CTBUH

CTBUH预测15年的建筑界将会更加活跃,有105至130栋(高层)建筑将会完工。中国仍将占据主导地位,预计会有10栋200米以上的建筑项目落成。超高层建筑的增长被认为是经济复苏的产物—在2014年许多完工的项目都是2008年经济衰退前的构想,今年将会有更多之前的构想落成现实。当然也有不同看法,有人认为摩天大楼的繁荣或许是财富的不合理分配的产物,而这恰恰是当初导致经济衰退的原因。


The CTBUH expects this year to be even more active, with a projected range of 105 to 130 buildings to be completed in 2015. China is once again predicted to dominate, with an estimated 106 projects of 200 meters or taller planned for completion. The increase is thought to be a product of the recovering economy– many of the projects completed in 2014 were conceived before the 2008 recession, as were many more that will be completed this year. It is argued that in some places, this skyscraper boom may be the product of the misallocation of wealth that caused the recession in the first place.

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第6张图片
2014年最高建筑第52位:伦敦兰特荷大厦,伦敦,224米。© Richard Bryant, Courtesy of British Land/Oxford Properties

无论什么原因,在2015年我们将会见到大量新兴的并且令人兴奋的摩天大楼出现。将在2015完工的上海塔将会达到632米,成为中国最高、世界第二高的建筑。二月将会产生美国农业部颁发的木建筑奖的获奖者,这或许能够激励木材作为城市建筑材料的革新。从拉斯维加斯到莫斯科这样的城市都有望能够在今年完成他们已经施工好几年的高楼,同时还有更多摩天大楼正在规划和设计中。


Whatever the reason, the world is about to receive a number of new and exciting skyscrapers in 2015. Shanghai’s Shanghai Tower will top out at 632 meters in 2015, making it the tallest building in China, and the second-tallest in the world. February will see winners announced for the US Department of Agriculture’s Tall Wood Building Prize, which many hope will inspire serious innovation with wood as an urban building material. Cities from Las Vegas to Moscow are expected to complete towers that have been under construction for years, and many additional skyscrapers are expected to be proposed and planned.

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第7张图片
2014年最高建筑第11位:Abeno Harukas摩天大楼,日本,300米。©  Hisao Suzuki

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第8张图片
2014年最高建筑第12位:世界贸易中心第四塔楼,纽约,298米。© Silverstein Properties

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第9张图片
2014年最高建筑第17位:阿布扎比世界贸易中心办公大楼,阿布扎比,278米。© Foster + Partners

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第10张图片
2014年最高建筑第18位:乐天中心,河内,272米。© 2014 Callison LLC

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第11张图片
2014年最高建筑第32位:Infinity公寓,布里斯班,249米。© DBI Design

高层新纪元:世界最高建筑100强添13个新成员第12张图片
2014年最高建筑第90位:望京SOHO中心T3塔楼,北京,200米。© Feng Chang

出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
编辑:刘彤,范偲慧

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  • 蓝天
  • 2015.02.13 10:13
    漂亮!!好壮观的建筑!!
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