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Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第1张图片
© Jesper Ray

Quota住宅是一个大型发展项目:MiniCO2住宅。该项目涉及到六间独立的房子,每一间都从不同的方面减少建设过程中以及住宅使用和维护过程中二氧化碳的排放。


The Quota House is part of a large development project: The MiniCO2 Houses. The project involves a total of six detached houses, each of which illustrates various aspects of reducing CO2 emissions in the construction, use and maintenance of a house.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第2张图片
© Jesper Ray

Quota住宅主要专注于居住者的行为和消费模式,研究当居住者进行更环保的行为——包括采取配额体制时(指居住者在每个月形式上的“预算”帐户设置一个明确的目标,低碳排放的最大量),能在何种程度上减少的碳排放量。


The Quota House focuses on occupant behaviour and patterns of consumption, examining the degree to which carbon emissions can be reduced when the occupants are supported in more environmentally friendly behaviour – including the adoption of a quota system, a form of “budget” account which sets a clear, low target for the maximum carbon emissions the occupants should aim for each month.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第3张图片
© Helene Høyer Mikkelsen

有三种方法可以帮助房子和它的居住者减少二氧化碳的消耗:首先,通过建筑的结构与功能,适当调节房子的方位,与日光和太阳的方向相联系,同时满足居住者所需的隐私和促进家庭和睦。其次,通过房子内置的技术监视器和提供电力,供暖和冷热水消耗的反馈。最后,由通过居住者自愿遵守的能源配额,设置其月度排放的二氧化碳量的最大量。


There are three ways in which the house and its occupants can help to reduce CO2 consumption: Firstly, via the architecture of the building, with functions suitably located in relation to daylight and solar orientation and to the need for privacy and family togetherness. Secondly, via built-in technology the house monitors and provides feedback on the consumption of electricity, heating and hot and cold water. And finally, by the occupants voluntarily observing an energy quota, which sets a maximum monthly target for the amount of CO2 they emit.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第4张图片
© Helene Høyer Mikkelsen

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第5张图片
平面图

在房子的中间是所谓的气候带,是在一天当中居住者经常通过的一个区域。这是他们查看建筑信息的位置,其中方便地列出了电力,水和暖气等信息,可以随时读取和核对家庭的每日和每月的配额消耗。
     屏幕下方是房子的紧急启动按钮,这是在所有生活中的配额消费的一个核心要素。如果家庭已超过其能源配额,房子就会“自动关机”。不过,按下启动按钮就可以立即重新激活所有的系统,但同时按下按钮也提醒居住者,他们已经超出了他们当月的能源配额,必须首先预支下个月的能源配置。


In the middle of the house is the so-called Climate Belt, a zone through which the occupants pass frequently during the course of the day. This is where they find the building’s information display, which conveniently lists consumption of electricity, water and heating, which can be read at any time and checked against the family’s daily and monthly quota.
Below the screen is the house’s emergency start button, in all senses a central element of life in the Quota House. If the family has exceeded its energy quota, the house shuts down. However, pressing the start button instantly reactivates all systems – but pushing the button also reminds occupants that they have exceeded their energy quota and must begin “putting energy aside” for next month.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第6张图片
© Jesper Ray


行为-影响参数:
聪明的居住者将他们的行为与减少碳排放结合,形成一种整体视觉纳入到房子的设计当中。这意味着:
•        Quota住宅设置了每个月的碳排放量,居住者对这个额度负责;
•        Quota住宅内置的技术有助于居住者在合适的时候关掉灯,打开加热和通风,使对使用过能源量进行更新。
•        Quota住宅设计更能节约能源,例如在室外庭院烘干进而节约了用烘干机烘干的能源,储藏室节省了冰箱空间,一个可供多种电子媒体活动的多媒体房间代替了里作为传统空间中心位置的客厅。


Behaviour-Influencing Parameters
Smarter occupant behaviour combined with an overall vision to reduce carbon emissions has been incorporated into the design of the house. This means that:
•        The Quota House sets a limit on the monthly level of carbon emissions for which the occupants are responsible.
•        The Quota House has built-in technology which helps occupants to turn off lights, switch on heating and ventilate at the appropriate times – and keeps them updated on the amount of energy they have used.
•        The design of the Quota House makes it easier to conserve energy, e.g. via a covered outdoor drying courtyard which saves on tumble drying, a larder which saves on refrigerator space and a multimedia room which provides space for a more conscious use of electronic media instead of the traditional central location in the living room.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第7张图片
细节

由于Quota 住宅还未居住,因此一个家庭的能源消耗还没有具体的计算数字。但在丹麦建筑研究所的研究人员的合作下所编制的生命周期的数据,认为这将有可能使显著减少电费和取暖的总消费量 ,在碳排放量上面也同样如此。


Reducing Carbon Emissions
The Quota House is not yet occupied. No specific calculations are therefore available yet of a family’s energy consumption. But life-cycle analysis figures prepared in co-operation with researchers at SBi, the Danish Building Research Institute, suggest that it will be possible to make significant reductions in the total consumption of electricity and heating – and therefore in carbon emissions.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第8张图片
© Helene Høyer Mikkelsen

Quota 住宅在50年使用寿命期间里面电力和供暖消费减少排放的二氧化碳量是15 - 10千克二氧化碳/。对于参考之家,供暖对应消耗的电力是24千克二氧化碳/ m2/年和13千克二氧化碳/ m2/年。Quota 住宅结构生命周期的材料消耗是6千克二氧化碳/ m2/年,即比参考之家(在50年使用寿命期间5千克二氧化碳/m2/年)的等效数字略高。


CO2 emissions stemming from consumption of electricity and heating during the service life of the Quota House are 15 and 10 kg of CO2/m2/year respectively over a 50-year period. For the Reference House, the corresponding figures are 24 kg of CO2/m2/year for consumed electricity and 13 kg of CO2/m2/year for consumed heating. Material consumption for the life cycle of the structure of the Quota House is 6 kg CO2/m2/year, i.e. slightly higher than the equivalent figures for the Reference House (5 kg CO2/m2/year over a 50-year period).

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第9张图片
© Jesper Ray

免维护的房子也是六个示范住宅之一,建在丹麦沿海小镇纽伯格。五所住宅研究减少碳排放的各种方法,而第六所房子则将直线所有经验结合在一起。


The MiniCO2 Houses Development Project
The Maintenance-Free House is one of six demonstration homes built in the coastal town of Nyborg in central Denmark. Five of the houses examine various ways of reducing carbon emissions; the sixth house brings these experiences together.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第10张图片
© Helene Høyer Mikkelsen

多年来,建筑行业都致力于减少二氧化碳的排放量,专注于能源取暖,因此也十分注重住宅的气密性和保温性。然而,随着国家和欧盟在这个地区的建设要求变得越来越严格,它成为研究如何从材料和用户行为方面,在工业也可以减少碳排放的例子。


For many years, the efforts of the building industry to reduce CO2 emissions – not without reason – have focused on energy for heating and therefore also on airtightness and insulation. However, as national and EU building requirements become ever stricter in this area, it becomes relevant to examine how the industry can also reduce carbon emissions – for example, in terms of materials and of user behaviour.

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第11张图片
© Jesper Ray

在迷你的CO2住宅发展项目的主要目标在于住宅建设、使用及维护过程中减少二氧化碳的排放量。这六个住宅相同的整体原则包括:  
•        建筑类型:单一家庭独立屋
•        尺寸:130-172㎡
•        能量准则:丹麦的2015标准
•        预算:正常的经济
•        建筑设计:广泛的吸引力
•        未来:完成试验后出售住宅


The main objective of the MiniCO2 Houses development project is thus to reduce CO2emissions in the construction, operation and maintenance of a house. The six houses share the same overall principles:
•        Building type: Single-family detached home
•        Size: 130 to 172 m2
•        Energy guidelines: Danish 2015 Standards
•        Budget: Normal economy
•        Architectural design: Broad appeal
•        Future: Sale of the house after completed experiment

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第12张图片
© Jesper Ray & Helene Høyer Mikkelsen

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第13张图片
© Jesper Ray

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第14张图片
© Jesper Ray

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第15张图片
细节

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第16张图片
立面图

Quota住宅 / Pluskontoret Arkitekter第17张图片
© Jesper Ray

建筑师: pluskontoret arkitekter
地点:丹麦,尼堡5800  
面积:138平方米
年份: 2013
照片: Jesper Ray, Helene Høyer Mikkelsen
开发商:Realdania Byg A/S
工程师:MOE
承包商: Murermestrene Thomas Hans
人类学家:Alexandra研究所
知识合作伙伴:丹麦建筑研究院(奥尔堡大学)
Architects: Pluskontoret Arkitekter
Location: 5800 Nyborg, Denmark
Area: 138.0 sqm
Year: 2013
Photographs: Jesper Ray, Helene Høyer Mikkelsen
Developer: Realdania Byg A/S
Engineer: MOE
Contractor: Murermestrene Thomas Hans
Anthropologist: The Alexandra Institute
Knowledge Partners: Danish Building Research Institute (Aalborg University), Zense Technology


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
编辑:罗晓茜,刘庆新
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